The Tuvinian People's Republic (People's Republic of Tannu Tuva) (1921-1944) was a state in the territory of the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia (an area in northern Asia between Mongolia and Siberia). Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Communist troops took Tuva in January 1920. The chaos accompanying this era allowed the Tuvans to proclaim their independence. On 14 August 1921 the Bolsheviks (supported by Russia) established a Tuvinian People's Republic, called Tannu Tuva until 1926. A treaty between the Soviet Union and the Mongolian People's Republic in 1926 affirmed the country’s independence. No other countries formally recognized it.

Tuva’s first Prime Minister was Donduk Kuular. Kuular made Buddhism the state religion and tried to limit settlers and propaganda coming from Russia. He also tried to establish ties with Mongolia. Russia became increasingly alarmed by these initiatives and in 1929 Kuular was arrested and later executed. The new government set about trying to destroy Buddhism and shamanism in Tuva, a policy encouraged by Stalin.

On 11 October 1944, with the approval of Tuva’s parliament, Tuva was included into the USSR. The Tuvinian People's Republic is now formally known as Tyva Republic within the Russian Federation.

During the 1930's, Tannu Tuva issued several sets of large pictorials, primarily for the collector market.