King Carol I (1) Reign 25th Anniversary (issued in 1891):
Opening of the New Post Office in Bucharest (1903):
1906 Charity sets:
1906 Jubilee Exhibition in Bucharest:
1: 1906 25th Anniversary of Kingdom
2-12: Forty Years of Rule of King Carol I (1906)
13: 1907 Welfare Fund
14-20: 1922 Coronation of King Ferdinand I (2)
1913 Acquisition of Dobruja (3):
1,2: King Ferdinand 60th Birthday (1926)
3-7: Geographical Society 50th Anniversary (1927)
8-10: 1927 50th Anniversary of Independence (4)
11-13: 1928 Annexation of Bessarabia 10th Anniversary (5)
14-17: Acquisition of Dobruja 50th Anniversary (1928)
18-23: 1929 Union with Transylvania 10th Anniversary (6)
I (1839-1914) was elected prince of Romania in April 1866 following the overthrow
of A. Cuza, and proclaimed first Romanian king in March 1881. He was the first
ruler of the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty which would rule the country until
the proclamation of a republic in 1947.
During his reign he personally led Romanian troops during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. The country achieved full independence from the Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Berlin, 1878) and acquired the southern part of the Dobruja from Bulgaria in 1913. Domestic political life, still dominated by the country's wealthy landowning families organised around the rival Liberal and Conservative parties, was punctuated by two widespread peasant uprisings, in Walachia (the southern half of the country) in April 1888 and in Moldavia (the northern half) in March 1907.
Carol's childlessness left his elder brother Leopold next in line to the throne. In October 1880 Leopold renounced his right of succession in favour of his son William, who in turn surrendered his claim eight years later in favour of his younger brother, the future king Ferdinand.
I (1865-1927) was born in Germany. Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
became heir to the throne of his childless uncle, King Carol I of Romania in
November 1888, following the renunciations of his father and elder brother.
In 1893, Crown Prince Ferdinand married Princess Marie of Edinburgh. He succeeded
his uncle as King of Romania in October 1914, reigning until his death in July
Though a member of a cadet branch of Germany's ruling Hohenzollern imperial family, he presided over his country's entry into World War I on the side of the Triple Entente powers against the Central Powers in August 1916. His family in Germany denied him and they put a black flag on the Hohenzollern Castle. The outcome of Romania's war effort was the union of Bessarabia, Bukovina and Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918.
Despite Romania's disastrous defeat during the closing months of 1916, he became ruler of a greatly enlarged Romanian state in 1918-1920 following the Entente's victory, a war between the Romania and the Hungarian Soviet Republic, and the civil war in Russia, and was crowned king of Romania in a spectacular ceremony on 15 October 1922 at the historic princely seat of Alba Iulia.
Ferdinand died in 1927, and was succeeded by his grandson Michael, under a regency. Although it is said that during his life king Ferdinand was not a very strong-minded person and had no will, he remains Romania's most important monarch. He completed the land reform and promulgated the Romanian constitution of 1923, a landmark in the development of the Romanian democracy.
(3) Romania took no part in the First Balkan War of 1912-13, fought to drive the Ottomans out of the western Balkans. In the Second Balkan War of June-July 1913 it joined Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Turkey in war against Bulgaria. Bulgaria signed an Armistice on July 31. At the Treaty of Bucharest in August 1913, the final territorial adjustments were made. Romania gained Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria.
(4) In 1877, Romania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire and, following a Russian-Romanian-Turkish war, its independence was recognized by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, making it the first independent national state in the eastern half of Europe. Following the war Romania acquired Dobruja, but it was forced to cede southern Bessarabia to Russia.
(5) Bessarabia, historically a Romanian province, was a Russian territory from 1812 until 1917. During the Russian revolution Bessarabia became a separate Soviet Republic and declared its independence as the Moldavian Republic in March 1918. As compensation for Romania's losses elsewhere the Treaty of Bucharest of May 1918 awarded Bessarabia to Romania, which had already sent in troops. In December 1918, a council of ethnic Romanians formally carried out Bessarabia's union with Romania. Soviet Russia was too weak at the time to contest the loss of Bessarabia but it never recognized it.
(6) Transylvania belonged to the Hungarian half of the Habsburg Monarchy until 1918. The overall majority of the population was ethnic Romanian. As Romanian nationalism was rising, Romania had long aspired to annex Transylvania. The province took no part in the Balkan Wars. In August 1916 Romania declared war and invaded Transylvania, but Austrian troops (with German reinforcements) drove them out within two months. In the Treaty of Bucharest of May 1918 Romania ceded to Austria the control of the Carpathian passes between Romania and Transylvania. Romanian armies and Allied intervention defeated attempts by postwar Hungarian governments to hold Transylvania by force of arms. In the Treaty of Trianon of June 1920 Romania gained all of historic Transylvania plus two-thirds of Hungary's rich Banat (the other third going to Yugoslavia).