1: Bucharest exhibition dedicated to 70th anniversary of dynasty (1936)
2-8: King Carol II accession to the throne 6th anniversary: national costumes (1936)
9-11: Fourth national scout jamboree at Brasov (1936)
12-14: Marine exhibition in Bucharest (1936)
15,16: 1936 16th anniversary of the first Little Entente (1)
17,18: I. Creanga (2) birth centenary (1937)
19-26: Accession 7th anniversary and Romanian Sport Federation 25th anniversary (1937)
27: Establishment of Little Entente (1937)
28-32: 8th Balkan games (1938)
33: 1938 Balkan Entente (3)
34-36: 1938 new constitution (4)
37: Bucharest exhibition dedicated to 20th Anniversary of union of Romanian provinces (1938)
38-47: King Carol II accession to the throne 8th Anniversary: Romanian rulers (1938)
48: King Carol II accession to the throne 8th anniversary (1938)
49-53: N. Grigorescu (5) birth centenary (1938)
54-67: King Carol I birth centenary (1939)
1-5: Romanian Railways 70th anniversary (1939)
6,7: 1939 New York World's Fair (6)
8,9: M. Eminescu (7) 50th death anniversary (1939)
10: Carol II accession to the throne 9th anniversary (1939)
(1) Little Entente was the name of an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of defending against the Hungarian revisionism and preventing the Habsburg restoration. France supported this alliance by signing treaties with each of the countries. Alliance started to break apart in 1936, with the complete disband in 1938. France saw in the Little Entente the potential to revitalize the threat of a two-front war against Germany in the interests of French security.
Creanga was born in northern Moldavia, in 1837. His mother wanted him to be
educated for priesthood, traditionally a prestigious position in the village
Creanga became a deacon after completing his studies at Socola Monastery in Iasi, the Moldavian capital in 1858. He also married the daughter of a priest. Creanga resumed his education in 1864, when he began studying to become a teacher. He eventually became a substitute teacher and collaborated in the writing of textbooks designed to help primary school pupils to learn how to read and write.
Creanga was constantly in conflict with his superiors in church. Eventually, his often criticisms of church officials and his eccentric behavior led to his suspension both as a deacon and as a teacher.He was reinstated in 1874. The following year, during an inspection of the school where Creanga taught, he encountered M. Eminescu, the young poet who then worked as a school inspector. A lasting friendship resulted. Eminescu encouraged Creanga to write down the tales that he frequently recounted orally. The bulk of Creanga's work was written during this period. He retired as a teacher in 1887 and died two years later from an attack of epilepsy.
(3) Balkan Entente was loose alliance formed in 1934 by Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece, and Turkey to safeguard their territorial integrity against Bulgarian revisionism. It thus was in harmony with the Little Entente. The events of World War II caused the dissolution of the Balkan Entente.
(4) Constitution from February 1938 conferred to Romanian Parliament a decorative role, with more reduced attributions, for king's prerogatives benefit. Carol II instituted a royal dictatorship. The parliamentary regime was replaced by an authoritarian one. The new constitution ended the separation of powers in state. The historical parties were formally dissolved and in their place the Front of National Rebirth appeared, becoming the national party. The king named not only the prime minister but all ministers.
(5) Nicolae Grigorescu (1838-1907) is one of the founders of modern Romanian painting.
He was born in the village of Pitaru. When his father died, the family moved to Bucharest. At an young age, he became apprentice at the workshop of the Czech painter A. Chladek and created icons for the churches and monasteries. In 1856 he created the historical composition Mihai scapand stindardul. Between 1856 and 1861, he painted various churches and monasteries. In 1861 he received a scholarship to study in Paris. As part of the "Universal Exposition" of Paris (1867), he contributed with seven works, then exhibited at the Paris Saloon of 1868.
In 1877 he was called to accompany the Romanian Army as a "front painter". During the battles, he made drawings and sketches which would be used for some compositions. in 1889 he Participates at the Universal Exhibition in Paris and at the Romanian Atheneum.
In 1890 he settled in Romania and started using rustic subjects, especially peasant girls, ox carts on the dusty country roads and other pastoral landscapes. He was named honour member of the Romanian Academy in 1899.
(6) 1939 New York World's Fair (1939-1940) at Flushing Meadows was seen by its organizers as an antidote to the despair of The Great Depression. By projecting a future of hope, the Fair emphasized international cooperation and the impact of technology on the world of the future. At the time the Fair was a cultural phenomenon which attracted 45 million visitors in its two years of operation. After its first summer, when projected sales were lower than hoped, ticket prices were reduced significantly and the Fair's often heavy handed themes were changed. After the second year, however, total visitors were 5 million less than anticipated and the Fair's corporation subsequently declared bankruptcy.
(7) Mihai Eminescu (1850-1889) is probably the best-known Romanian poet. Famous works include Morning star, I Have a Single Desire Left and Epistles. Eminescu was active in the Junimea literary society, was a prominent member of the Conservative Party, and a journalist.
He was born in Moldavia. The first evidence of Eminescu as a writer is in 1866 when the teacher A. Pumnul died and his students published a pamphlet in which appeared a poem entitled The Grave of Aron Pumnul written by Eminescu. This began a steady series of published poems (and the occasional translation from German). In 1867 he joined the leading Romanian theatrical troupes and soon became a clerk and copyist for the National Theater. Through this period, he continued to write and publish poems.
In 1869 he was a co-founder of the "Orient" literary circle, whose interests included the gathering of fairy tales, popular poetry, and documents relating to Romanian literary history. From October 1869 to 1872 he studied in Vienna. He became a member of Junimea literary club, which exercised its political and cultural influence over Eminescu for the rest of his life. In 1870 he wrote three articles under the pseudonym "Varro" on the situation of Romanians and other minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Later he became a journalist at the newspaper Albina in Pest. In 1877 he moved to Bucharest, where he was editor of the newspaper The Time. During this time he wrote most of his poems. However, his overwork during this period was very bad for his health. Eminescu died in June 1889.