1-3: King Carol II (1) coronation (1930)
4,5: National census (1930)
6-10: 50th anniversary of the monarchy (1931)
11-14: Romanian navy 50th anniversary (1931)
15-21: Romanian army centenary (1931)
1-5: Scouts exhibition fund (1931)
6: King Alexander I 500th death anniversary (1932)
7-12: Second national scout jamboree in Sibiu (1932)
13-15: 9th International medical congress (2) in Bucharest (1932)
16-18: Postal employees' fund (1932)
19-25: Romanian stamp (3) 75th anniversary (1932)
1: Bucharest post office (4) 30th anniversary (1932)
2-5: City of Turnu-Severin (5) centenary (1933)
6-8: Peles castle (6) 50th anniversary (1933)
9-11: Housewives exhibition fund (1934)
12: 1934 third national scout jamboree in Mamaia (overprint on 1932 scouts set)
13,14: Fruit exhibition in Bucharest (1934)
15-18: The Transylvanian peasant revolt (1784-1785) martyrs (7) 150th death anniversary (1935)
King Carol II accession to the throne 5th anniversary (1935):
(1) Carol II of
Romania (1893-1953) reigned as King of Romania from June 8, 1930 until September
Carol was eldest son of Ferdinand von Hohenzollern. He was known more for his romantic misadventures than for any leadership skills. As a result of the various scandals, he renounced his right to the throne in December 1925 in favour of his son Michael, who became King in July 1927.
Returning to the country unexpectedly in June 1930, Carol was proclaimed King the following day. For the next decade he sought to influence the course of Romanian political life, first through manipulation of the rival Peasant and Liberal parties and anti-Semitic factions, and subsequently through a ministry of his own choosing, with a constitution reserving ultimate power to the crown. In 1938, he banned the fascist Iron Guard, which he early supported in the 1930s.
In 1940, following a treaty between Germany and USSR, Romania lost Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to USSR and northwestern Transilvania to Hungary. Carol found himself without internal or external political support. The people considered him responsible for the loss of the above-mentioned territories and for the violence in the political life in the country. Thus, in September 1940 Carol gave up most of his decision-making powers in favor of General Ion Antonescu who became the head of state. More than that, the next day, on September 6, 1940 Antonescu forced Carol to abdicate and Michael became for the second time King of Romania. Michael was only 19 and Antonescu was the actual new ruler of Romania.
Carol left Romania with royal treasure in special train. The sale of much of this treasure gave him enormous wealth, which he spent lavishly, living a life of wasteful luxury. He remained in exile for the rest of his life and died in Portugal.
(2) The 9th International Medical Congress was held in Bucharest from September 10-18, 1932. The themes discussed were evolution of medicine in the Balkan countries and the defense of Europe against the plague.
(3) On the November 12, 1857 a commission gathered in Iasi decided to introduce the postal stamps in the Principality of Moldavia which, one year later, was united with the Principality of Wallachia to form Romania. The stamps were manually printed, piece by piece. Stamps depicted oxen head. The set of four values of 27, 54, 81, and 108 parale, inscribed in Cyrillic letters but in the Romanian language, was issued on July 21, 1858.
(4) The construction of the Post Office (Palace) in Bucharest started in 1894, taking an example from similar buildings from Western Europe countries. It was scheduled to be finished in 1900.
(5) The city was originally called Drobetae by the Romans. It was in the Middle Ages that it changed its name to Turnu Severin or the Northern Tower, from a tower on the north bank of the Danube built by the Byzantines. This was built to commemorate a victory over the Gauls and Marcomanni. In 1972 it received the name of Drobeta-Turnu Severin.
Near Turnu Severin are the remains of the celebrated Trajan's bridge, the largest in the Empire, built in 103 (depicted on 2 Lei stamp). The Danube is about 1,200 metres broad at this spot. The bridge was composed of twenty arches supported by stone pillars; only two are still visible at low water.
(6) Peles Castle, located in Sinaia, is a castle built between 1873 and 1883.
The foundation rock for this building has been set up on 22nd of August 1875. The construction place, the land surface from Peles Creek Valley, had been bought by Carol I. At the same time, several other buildings - annex to the castle - are built: The Guard's Chambers, The Economat Building, The Hunting House, The Royal Stables, and the Electrical Power Plant.
The neo-Renaissance style was designed by German architects W. Doderer and J. Schultz. Later additions were made between 1893 and 1914 by the Czech architect K. Liman. It was used to be the summer residence of the royal family.
Peles Castle has over 170 rooms. It has been the first european castle entirely lit by electrical current. Electricity was produced by its own electrical plant. Peles Castle shelters one of the most important and most valuable painting collections in Europe, almost 2.000 pieces. The courtyard has a merry decoration, made out of plants and flowers; all round, the building's facades are animated by elegant drawings. The interior of the castle is a true wonder, due to the beauty and richness of the sculpted wood and the stained glass windows.
(7) Joseph II, Austrian emperor since 1765, regarded himself an enlightened monarch and impatiently decreed reforms, many of which aimed at the reduction of corvee labour the peasants had to work for the nobility. In most regions, the nobility resisted. In Transylvania, the nobility was largely Hungarian and Roman Catholic or Calvinist, the peasantry largely Romanian and Orthodox. Many of the Transylvanian nobles were comparatively poor and regarded the services the peasants owed them essential. In October 1784, Transylvanian peasants in the Apuseni region took up arms and the rebellion quickly spread throughout the country. Under the leadership of V. Urs called Horea, I. Oarga called Closca and G. Marcu called Crisan (who are depicted on stamps) they turned on noble estates and killed a number of nobles. The peasants' force swelled to 30,000. They however did not turn against Habsburg rule and when Habsburg forces appeared on the scene, they disbanded. The leaders were arrested, publicly tortured and executed.