1: Michel no. 11 (issued in 1858) depicting King Pedro V
2: Michel no. 12 (1862) depicting King Luis I
Pedro V of Portugal, (1837-1861) was the King of Portugal from
1853 to 1861.
He was the oldest son of Queen Maria da Gloria and her King-Consort Ferdinand II. Pedro was an unusually conscientious and hard-working monarch who, under the guidance of his father, sought radical modernization of the Portuguese state and infrastructure. Under Pedro's reign, roads, telegraphs, and railways were constructed and improvements in public health advanced.
However, this was unable to save the life of the young king who died (along with his brother Ferdinand) of cholera in 1861. He was married to Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, but had no successors and the throne then passed to brother Luis.
Luis I (1838–1889) was the King of Portugal between 1861
and 1889. He was the second son of Maria II da Gloria and Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Luis was a cultured man who wrote vernacular poetry, but otherwise had no distinguishing gifts in the political field into which he was thrust by the deaths of his brothers Pedro V and Ferdinand in 1861. Luis' domestic reign was a tedious and ineffective series of transitional governments formed at various times by the Progressives (Liberals) and Regenerators (Conservatives – the party generally favoured by King Luis, who secured their long term in office after 1881). Despite a flirtation with the Spanish succession prior to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Luis's reign was otherwise one of domestic stagnation as Portugal fell ever further behind the nations of western Europe in terms of public education, political stability, technological progress and economic prosperity.
Luis was mostly a man of the sciences, with a passion for oceanography. He invested great amounts of his fortune in funding research boats to collect specimens in the oceans of the world. He was responsible for the establishment of one of the World's first Aquariums, Aquário Vasco da Gama in Lisbon, which is still open to the public with its vast collection of maritime life forms, including a 10 meter long squid. His love for sciences and things new was passed to his two sons.