1-4: Cultural and Social Fund (1) (1936)
5: Children Fund (1936)
6,7: Utrecht University (2) 300th anniversary (1936)
8-10: 1937 World Scout Jamboree (3)
11-14: Cultural and Social Fund (4) (1937)
15: Children Fund (1937)
16-20: Cultural and Social Fund (5) (1938)
21: Queen Wilhelmina's reign 40th anniversary (1938)
22: Airmail stamp for international flights (1938)
23: Children Fund (1938)
24-28: Cultural and Social Fund (6) (1939)
29,30: Saint Willibrord (7) 1200th death anniversary (1939)
31,32: Dutch Railways (8) centenary (1939)
33: Children Fund (1939)
34-38: Cultural and Social Fund (9) (1940)
39-43: Cultural and Social Fund (10) (1941)
44: Children Fund (1941)
45,46: Dutch Legion (11) (1942)
47-51: Winter Relief Fund (1944)
52: Children Fund (1945)
1: Children Fund (1940)
2: European Postal Congress in Vienna (1943)
3: Stamp Day: 19th Century postal coach (1943)
4: Liberation of Netherlands (12) (1945)
1943 Dutch Naval Heroes set:
(1) Stamps depict Dr. H. Kamerlingh-Onnes (physicist), A. S. Talma (priest and statesman), Dr. J.A.M. Schaepmann (statesman) and D. Erasmus v. Rotterdam (humanist and theologian).
(2) Utrecht University is a university in Utrecht. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands and one of the largest in Europe. It is rated as the sixth best University in Europe in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. It was established in1636. The university's motto is "Sol Iustitiae Illustra Nos", which means "Sun of Justice, shine upon us".
(3) In the summer of 1937, the Scouts of the world gathered together at Vogelenzang, the Netherlands, for the Fifth World Jamboree. Already the storm clouds of war were forming. It was to be the last such gathering for ten years. The 5th World Scout Jamboree was also the Jamboree where 81-year old Baden-Powell gave his farewell. The Jamboree was opened by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, with 28,750 Scouts from 54 countries attending. Given 650 water taps and 120 showers, it was considered the cleanest jamboree to date. Although girls didn't participate in the jamboree, they were allowed to give a salute to Baden-Powell, their Chief Guide.
(4) Stamps depict J. Maris (painter who belonged to the Hague School of painters), Franciscus Sylvius (physician and scientist (chemist, physiologist and anatomist)), Joost van den Vondel (writer and playwright.) and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (tradesman and scientist, commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology").
(5) Stamps depict Marnix van Sint Aldegonde (writer and statesman, and the probable author of the text of the Dutch national anthem), Dr. O.G. Heldring (minister of the Church and founder of educational institution at Zetten), Maria Tesselschade (poet), Rembrandt van Rijn (painter) and Dr. H. Boerhaave (humanist and physician, regarded as the founder of the clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital).
(6) Stamps depict Matthijs Maris (painter), Anton Mauve (realist painter), G.F. van Swieten (physician), Dr. N. Beets (theologian, writer and poet - he published under the pseudonym, Hildebrand) and Pieter Stuyvesant (the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland).
(7) Saint Willibrord
(c. 658 – 739) was a Northumbrian missionary, known as the "Apostle
to the Frisians" in modern Netherlands. He became the first Bishop of Utrecht
and died at Echternach, Luxembourg.
He was sent to the Abbey of Ripon almost as soon as he was weaned. Later he joined the Benedictines. He spent the years between the ages of 20 and 32 in the Abbey of Rathmelsigi, which was a center of European learning in the 7th century. During this time he studied under Saint Egbert, who sent him and twelve companions to Christianize the pagan North Germanic tribes of Frisia, at the request of Pepin, Christian king of the Franks and nominal suzerain over that region. At the request of Pepin he traveled twice to Rome, finally being consecrated Bishop of the Frisians. In the year 695 he was given the name of Clement. He was also given the pallium by the pope. He returned to Frisia to preach and to build numerous churches, among them a monastery at Utrecht, where he established his cathedral and is counted the first Bishop of Utrecht.
In 716 the pagan Radbod, king of the Frisians, retook possession of Frisia, burning churches and killing many missionaries. After the death of Radbod in 719, Willibrord returned to resume his work, aided by St. Boniface. His frequent visits to the Abbey of Echternach resulted in his being interred there after his passing, and he was quickly judged to be a saint. His feast is celebrated on November 7 outside England, but on November 29 in England, by order of Pope Leo XIII. Numerous miracles and relics have been attributed to him.
(8) The Dutch railways (Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS) was founded in 1938 when the two largest Dutch railway companies, the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij and the Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Staatsspoorwegen, formally merged. These two companies, however, had been intensively cooperating as early as 1917. There were both economic and ideologic reasons for the cooperation. Due to the First World War the economic situation had declined in the Netherlands, and the railway companies started to lose money. The railway companies were considered of great importance and thus letting them slip into bankrupty was not an option. The companies thus started an intensive cooperation in which their operational activities were completely integrated, even though the companies themself remain independed entities. To financially support the companies, shares were bought by the Dutch government. In 1938 the government merged both companies into the current company, the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. The government bought the remaining shares, but never nationalized the company. The NS thus remained (and still is) a private company with the Dutch government as sole shareholder.
(9) Stamps depict Vincent van Gogh (Post-Impressionist artist), E.J. Potgieter (prose writer and poet), P. Camper (anatomist and a naturalist, as well as an artist and a patron of art), Jan Steen (genre painter) and J.J. Scaliger (French religious leader and scholar, known for expanding the notion of classical history from Greek and Ancient Roman history to include Persian, Babylonian, Jewish and Ancient Egyptian history).
(10) Stamps depict Dr. A. Mathijsen (physician), J. Ingenhousz (physiologist, botanist and physicist), Aagje Deken (writer), J. Bosboom (church painter) and Antoni C.W. Staring (poet).
(11) After the success
of Germany's blitzkrieg attacks on Poland and in the West in 1939-1940, many
European fascists saw Germany as an answer to the Bolshevik problem. Heinrich
Himmler, head of the SS, with the support of Adolf Hitler, began a campaign
in late 1940 to recruit those European fascists of sufficiently Aryan stock
into a series of Legions, under the control of the Waffen-SS.
On June the 28th 1941, just six days after the beginning of Operation 'Barbarossa' A. Meijer - the leader of the Dutch Nationaal Front (NSB) - launched a spectacular idea: the Dutch should raise a volunteer legion in order to assist the German forces against the Red Army and bolshevism. NSB supported the formation of a Dutch volunteer legion, and its leader Anton Mussert considered it to be the forerunner of a new Dutch army. The German occupier reacted positively to this idea as well, as the independent formation of a volunteer legion was very interesting to the Nazis from a propagandist point of view. This way they could show the world that Germanic Europe was not only behind their cause, but that it was even prepared to fight alongside them. All recruits were permitted to wear the Prinsenvlag (an unofficial Dutch national flag) on the sleeve of the uniform. The recruits went through training in Germany, trained by German Waffen-SS instructors.
In November, 1941, the legion was ordered to the front near Leningrad. The legion was involved in heavy fighting until April 1943, when it was ordered back to Germany. Upon arrival the legion was dissolved and reformed as SS Brigade 'Nederland'. In September 1943, the brigade was ordered to Croatia. On Christmas Day, 1943, the brigade was deemed ready for the front, and was moved back to Leningrad Front. On 14 January 1944, the Soviets launched a massive offensive and in January 1945, the brigade was evacuated to Germany. Last units of the brigade participated in the Battle for Berlin. After the war, the survivors were tried in the Netherlands, with several death sentences being handed down.
The Dutch Legion stamps were issued by the Dutch postal administration on 1 November 1942. These are two semi-postal stamps portraying Dutch Legionnaires. Both stamps were printed in sheets of one hundred. In addition two souvenir sheets were printed. Sale of stamps ceased on 28 February 1943, and they remained valid until 31 December 1943. All remainders were destroyed. The surtax from these stamps was used to benefit the Legion.
(12) On May 5, 1945,
German Col.-Gen. J. Blaskowitz formally surrendered the remaining 117,000 German
troops in the Netherlands to Canadian Lt.-Gen. C. Foulkes, ending nearly eight
months of bitter and difficult fighting.
Canadian Forces played an important role in liberating the Netherlands. Canadians who landed on D-Day, fought battles through France, Belgium, the Scheldt and in Germany before being dispatched back to the Netherlands with the Canadians who had fought in Italy. Canadian orders were to push the German troops occupying the northeast back to the sea and to drive German troops in the west back into Germany. The advance was halted on April 12, because of concern for the well-being of citizens in the western Netherlands, who, having been starved for months, ran the risk of having their country flooded if the Germans panicked and opened the dykes. On April 28, the Canadians negotiated a truce which permitted relief supplies to enter the western Netherlands and end the "Hunger Winter".
May 5 is celebrated each year in the Netherlands as Liberation Day . After the liberation in 1945 the decision was made that Liberation Day was going to be celebrated every 5 years. Only in 1990, the day was declared a national holiday, on which the liberation would be commemorated and celebrated annually.