1,2: Flood Relief Fund (issued in 1913)
3,4: War Charity, first issue (1914)
5: War Charity, second issue (1915)
6-8: War Charity, third issue (1916)
9,10: 1916 Coronation of King Karel V and Queen Zita
11: War Charity Exhibition (1917)
12-16: Communist Issue (1): Portraits (1919)
1: 1919 Entry of National Army into Budapest (2)
2-4: Prisoners of War Fund (1920)
5-9: S. Petofi (3) Birth Centenary (1923)
10-12: Tuberculosis Relief Fund (1924)
13: M. Jokai (4) Birth Centenary (1925)
14-21: Sports Association Fund (1925)
St. Stephen (5) 890th Death Anniversary 1st (1928) and 2nd (1929) Issue:
Hungarian Soviet Republic was the political regime in Hungary from March 21,
1919 until the beginning of August of the same year, and it is the second Communist
government in world history, after the one in Russia.
The immediate cause of the formation of the Hungarian Soviet Republic was the failure of Count Mihály Károlyi's government of the re-born state of Hungary to reorganize the country's social and economic life after the lost war and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After less than six months in power, Károlyi admitted the failure of his policies, resigning in favor of the young Hungarian Communist Party. Károlyi intended to leave the communists in power in order to pass onto them the responsibility of dealing with the difficult matter of the Entente's territorial requests.
Communist party had been organized just a few months earlier, in a Moscow hotel in November 1918, when a group of Hungarian prisoners of war and other communist sympathizers formed a Central Committee. Led by Béla Kun, they soon left for Hungary and started to recruit new members and propagate the party's ideas.
Kun founded a communist newspaper, and concentrated on attacking Károlyi's government. He was arrested but the newspaper continued to be printed. After receiving the ultimatum that required more Hungarian territorial cessions on March 20, Károlyi released Kun from prison and gave him control over the government, so that he would be forced to deal with the ultimatum. Kun created a government which proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic on March 21. The new government decreed the abolition of aristocratic titles and privileges, the separation of church and state, and guaranteed the freedom of speech and assembly, free education, language and cultural rights to minorities.
Kun also asked Lenin for a treaty of alliance with Soviet Russia, to defend against the inevitable hostile reaction from Entente. But Soviet Russia was unable to lend a helping hand to the Hungarian republic, because it was itself tied down in the Civil War. The Hungarian government was thus left on its own, and a Red Guard was established.
The Communist government nationalized industrial and commercial enterprises, and socialized housing, transport, banking, medicine, cultural institutions, and large landholdings. While undertaking these domestic measures, Kun also kept in mind the fact that his communists were heavily dependent on popular support for his foreign policy of restoring Hungary's borders.
Kun attempted to spread communist revolution to neighboring regions that had previously belonged to Hungary. After his military victory over the Czechs, American President Wilson demanded a halt to the Hungarian Red Army's advances and invited the Hungarian government to Paris to discuss Hungary's frontiers. Kun believed that the Soviet Russian government would intervene on Hungary's behalf and that the worldwide workers' revolution would spread from East toward West. A spurious Soviet Republic of Slovakia was proclaimed on June 16, in the southern and eastern Slovak lands.
The situation of the Hungarian Communists began to deteriorate when, after a failed coup by the National Social-Democrats in June, the new Communist government resorted to large-scale reprisals. Revolutionary tribunals ordered executions of people suspected of having been involved in the attempted coup. Meanwhile, the government's agricultural policies alienated many peasants, and its secular nature greatly offended the clergy. Its popular support began to decline.
In addition, Soviet Hungary faced external threats. The advance of its armies had been halted in the North, and Soviet Slovakia fell to counter-revolutionary forces at the end of June. At the same time, the Romanians invaded from the East, and advanced across Hungary all the way to the gates of the capital, engaging the Red Guards in a pitched battle before Budapest. The battle was eventually lost, and Béla Kun fled to Austria in August together with other high-ranking Communists. Budapest was occupied by Romanian forces on August 6, putting an end to the Hungarian Revolution and the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
the defeat of Hungarian Soviet Republic, the new fighting force in Hungary were
the Conservative counter-revolutionaries - the Whites. They, who had been organizing
in Vienna and established a counter-government in Szeged, assumed power, led
by István Bethlen and Miklós Horthy, the former commander in chief
of the Austro-Hungarian navy.
Starting in Western Hungary and spreading throughout the country, a White Terror began and many Communists and other leftists were executed without trial. On November 16, with the consent of Romanian forces, Horthy's army marched into Budapest.
In January 1920, Hungarians cast the first secret ballots in the country's political history and, since the entire left-wing either boycotted or was excluded from the voting, a large right-wing majority was elected to assembly. In March, the parliament restored the Hungarian monarchy but postponed electing a king until civil disorder had subsided. Instead, Horthy was elected regent and was empowered to appoint Hungary's prime minister, veto legislation, convene or dissolve the parliament, and command the armed forces.
Petofi (1823 - 1849) was a Hungarian national poet and a key figure in the Hungarian
Revolution of 1848.
Petofi was born as Alexander Petrovics. His father tried to give his son the best education possible, but when Sándor was 15 they lost their money due to the flood of Danube of 1838 and Sándor had to leave the school. He did small works for theatres in Pest, was a teacher and a soldier. After a period of traveling Petofi attended the college of Pápa, where he first met Maurus Jokai, and in 1842 his first poem was published under the name Sándor Petrovics. In November of the same year he published this poem under the name Petofi. In 1844 he went to Pest to find a publisher for his poems, in which he succeeded and the poems were becoming increasingly popular. He used folklore elements and popular, traditional song-like verses heavily. Among his works is the epic John the Valiant.
In Pest he joined a group of students and intellectuals who regularly met and thought of a global revolution. Among the various leaders of the revolution Petofi was the key member in starting the revolution and co-author of the two most important documents: the 12 points and the National Song. On the morning of the 15th, the revolutionary youth around Petofi began to march around the city of Pest, reading the poem and the 12 points to the people, gathering a crowd of thousands in the process. Thereafter, they visited presses, where they declared the end of censorship, and had Petofi's poem and the 12 pont printed. The major was also pressed to sign the 12 points. Later on, a mass demonstration was held in front of the newly built National Museum, from which the masses left for Buda. When the crowd rallied in front of the imperial governing council's seat, the representatives of the Emperor felt they have no choice but to sign the 12 points. As one point was freedom for political prisoners, the crowd then moved on to greet newly freed revolutionary poet Mihály Táncsics.
But Petofi's popularity waned as the memory of the glorious day started to fade, and the revolution went on by with the leadership of the nobles in the noblemen's assembly. Petofi disagreed with the decisions of the assembly, and criticized the way they imagined the goals and ways of the revolution. In general elections, he nominated himself in his native area, but wasn't elected. At this time, he wrote his most serious poem, the epic The Apostle. Petofi joined Polish revolutionary general Bem's Transylvanian army. That army fought a successful campaign against Habsburg troops, Romanian and Transylvanian German militias, but was defeated repeatedly when the Russians intervened to aid the Austrians. He was seen last time in the battle of Segesvár, July 31, 1849. The circumstances of his death are mysterious.
(4) Jokai Maurus, Hungarian novelist, was born in 1825. He was educated at home till his tenth year, when he was sent to Pressburg, completing his education at the Calvinist college where he first met Petofi, Kozma, and several other men who subsequently became famous. His family had meant him to follow the law but that was uncongenial to the poetical youth, and, encouraged by the encomiums pronounced by the Hungarian Academy upon his first play, The Jew Boy, he went to Pest. He was introduced by Petofi to the literary notabilities and the same year his first notable romance Working Days appeared. It was instantly recognized by all the leading critics as a work of original genius, and in the following year Jokai was appointed the editor of Eletkpek, the leading Hungarian literary journal, and gathered round him all the rising talent of the country. On the outbreak of the revolution of 1848 the young editor enthusiastically adopted the national cause, and served it with both pen and sword. Carried away by the Hungarian triumphs of April and May 1849, he supported Kossuths fatal blunder of deposing the Hapsburg dynasty. After the war was lost his life was saved. He lived for the next fourteen years the life of a political suspect. During it he devoted himself to the rehabilitation of the Hungarian language, composing thirty great romances, besides innumerable volumes of tales, essays and criticisms. On the re-establishment of the Hungarian constitution in 1867, Joai took an active part in politics. In 1897 the emperor appointed him a member of the upper house. Yet it was to literature that he continued to devote most of his time, and his productiveness after 1870 was stupendous, amounting to some hundreds of volumes. He died at Budapest in 1904.
King Stephen the Great or St. Stephen of Hungary (about 975–1038),
was the first king of Hungary. His father was the Magyar chieftain Géza.
Born a pagan, Vajk was baptized, as a precondition of accepting the crown from
Rome, at age 10 name Stephen.
Between 995 and 997, Stephen was the prince of Nitra. After father's death he defeated the pagan nobles who opposed him and managed to successfully unite virtually all the Magyar clans. Pope Silvester II sent a magnificent jeweled gold crown to Stephen along with an apostolic cross and a letter of blessing to officially recognize him as a Christian king of Europe.
He founded several cathedrals, abbeys and monasteries. Inside the abbeys and monasteries, schools were established and they became important centers of culture. Stephen discouraged pagan customs and strengthened Christianity with various laws and making Latin the official language of the royal court. Stephen gave generously to the churches. He often disguised himself as a peasant whenever he traveled, and freely gave money to any poor people he met. In recognition of his success, in his lifetime the Pope granted him the title Apostolic King and the right to use the Apostolic double cross. The double cross is in Hungary's arms to this day.
He intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his only surviving son Imre, but in 1031 Imre was wounded in a hunting accident and died. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation and died unable to choose a heir.