1: 1871 King Franz Josef (1)
2: 1872 Newspaper Stamp: St. Stephen's Crown (2) and Postal Horn
3: St. Stephen's Crown and Letter with Colored Numeral (1874)
4: 1874 Newspaper Stamp: Letter with Colored Numeral
5: St. Stephen's Crown and Letter with Black Numeral (1888)
6,7: Turul (3) and King Franz Josef (1900)
8: 1900 Newspaper Stamp: Coat of Arms
9: 1916 Savings Bank Stamp
10: 1916 Express Stamp
11: 1916 Harvesters (white numerals)
12: 1916/20 Harvesters (colored Numerals)
13: 1917 The Parliament (4)
14,15: 1918 King Karl IV (5) and Queen Zita (6)
16-21: 1918 KOZTARSASAG ('Republic') overprint
22,23 : 1919 Harvesters & Parliament (inscribed MAGYAR POSTA)
24,25 : 1919 MAGYAR/TANACS/KOZTARSASAG ('Hungarian Soviet Republic') overprint
26: 1919 Express stamp
27: 1920 Airmail
28: Madonna & Child (1921)
1,2: 1920 Harvesters & Parliament (old inscription MAGYAR KIR. POSTA)
3: 1924 Airmail: Icarus over Budapest
4: 1926 St. Stephen's Crown
5: 1926 Fisherman's Bastion (7)
6: 1926 Royal Castle and Danube (ship on the left)
7: 1926 Royal Castle and Danube (no ship)
8: Madonna & Child (1926)
9: 1929 Royal Castle and Danube (ship on the right)
10: Madonna & Child (1932)
11-24: 1932/37 Famous Hungarians
25: 1938 Regent M. Horthy (8)
26-33: St. Stephen's Crown, Saints and Churches (1939)
34: Regent M. Horthy (1941)
35-50: National Heroes and Churches (1943)
51-56: Famous Women (1944)
1927/30 Airmail Set (Michel no. 430-437 and 467-470):
1936 Airmail Set:
(1) Franz Josef
(1830-1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia
from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916 in an attempt
to calm the situation with the problematic Hungarians. This worked and the Dual
Monarchy would last until his death in 1916.
Franz was born in Vienna, Austria. He was the eldest son of Archduke Franz Karl, who was brother and heir of Austrian Emperor Ferdinand I. Because his father renounced his claim to the throne, Franz became emperor as Franz Josef I when Ferdinand abdicated near the end of the Revolution of 1848. The aging monarch had seen the Habsburg Empire lose its holdings in both Italy and Germany until it had become mainly an eastern European power. Franz Josef was sensitive to these losses and was determined not to allow further decay of the empire by losing Austro-Hungarian holdings in the Balkans to Serbia. Despite these political beliefs he was immensely popular among all the various national groups that comprised his kingdom. This can be attributed to the above average standard of living that his subjects enjoyed.
In 1854 Franz Josef married Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria, who became Elisabeth of Austria. Their only son, Crown Prince Rudolf, committed suicide. His brother, Maximilian, was executed in Mexico. Franz had numerous difficulties with his nephew and heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who would be assassinated by Serbian nationalists in 1914 in Sarajevo. This assassination triggered WW1.
(2) Of all the possessions of the old kingdom of Hungary, none was more valued than what was called the Crown of St. Stephen. The crown was given to Stephen, the second Christian Duke, and first King of Hungary by Pope Sylvester II in the year 1000. A crown and a cross were given to him for his coronation. The bent cross has long been a point of speculation. The cross seems to have been intentionally made bent.
(3) The great mythical Turul bird of prey is one of the most important symbols of the Hungarians. It represents their god's power and will. The Turul was seen as the ancestor of Atilla, and it was also the symbol of the Huns. The Hungarian Turul is often represented carrying the flaming Sword of God.
(4) The Hungarian Parliament is prominently situated on the east side of the Danube River in Budapest, the nation’s capital. It was designed by Imre Steindl. The works started in 1885 and were finished in 1902. It is a neo-Gothic construction. Nearly 500 feet long, it is a gigantic complex with some 18 courtyards, nearly 700 rooms, numerous grand staircases, and an stunning interior. The interior surface of the Parliament is 17.000 sqm. The part of the building facing the Danube has 88 sculptures representing great leaders of the past. It is one the biggest parliamentary buildings in the world.
of Austria (1887-1922), more formally known as Karl Franz Josef Ludwig Hubert
Georg Maria von Habsburg-Lothringen, was the last Emperor of Austria, the last
King of Hungary, and the last monarch of the Habsburg Dynasty. Karl was the
son of Otto Franz of Austria (1865-1906), younger brother of Archduke Franz
Ferdinand, whose assassination triggered World War I. In 1911 he was married
to Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma.
His reign began in 1916. In 1917, Karl secretly sued for a separate peace with France, deserting his German ally. When news of the overture leaked, he denied all involvement, until the French published letters signed by him.
He fled to Switzerland after the empire collapsed at the end of the war, but refused to abdicate. Encouraged by Hungarian nationalists, he sought twice in the early 1920s to reclaim the throne of Hungary, but failed, due to various factors including the betrayal of the Hungarian Regent M. Horthy, whom Karl had helped to appoint. He died on the island of Madeira in 1922.
(6) Zita of Bourbon-Parma
(1892-1989) was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary. She was born
in Italy, married Karl of Austria in 1911 and in the following decade gave birth
to eight children.
She was accused by critics of being behind her exiled husband's attempts to regain his throne of Hungary, where the monarchy had been re-established under a regent after the end of the First World War, and from which he had not abdicated. After his death in 1922 she left Madeira but continued living abroad. In old age, from 1962 onward, she lived in Switzerland.
Prior to her death she repeated her conviction that the deaths of Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his mistress Baroness Marie Vetsera in 1889 were not a double suicide but murder by French or Austrian agents.
(7) The Fisherman's Bastion is a terrace in neo-Gothic and neo-Romanesque style situated on the Buda bank of the Danube, on the Castle hill in Budapest. It was designed and built between 1895 and 1902 on the plans of F. Schulek. Its seven towers represent the seven Magyar tribes that settled in the Carpathian Basin in 896. The Bastion takes its name from the guild of fishermen which was responsible for defending this stretch of the city walls in the Middle Ages. It is a viewing terrace, with many stairs and walking paths.
Horthy de Nagybanya (1868–1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman
and served as the Regent of Hungary from 1920 until 1944.
As a young man Horthy served as a diplomat for the Austro-Hungarian empire in Turkey and other countries. Horthy distinguished himself as an admiral during World War I, in which he defeated the Italian Navy several times. Because of his success, he was promoted to Commander in Chief of the Imperial Fleet in March, 1918, and held that position until he was ordered by the Emperor to surrender the fleet to the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
In 1919, when the communists seized power, Horthy organized a force that deposed the Communist government. In March, 1920, the National Assembly of Hungary re-established the Kingdom of Hungary, but elected not to recall Karl IV from exile. Instead, they proclaimed Horthy as Regent for an indefinite period of time.
Horthy eventually began to sympathize with Fascism and appointed several pro-fascist officials to cabinet posts. When the Nazi government of A. Hitler began to rise in power and put pressure on neighboring nations to return territories lost after the war, Horthy became his willing accomplice. In May of 1941, Hungary became a full member of the Axis.
By 1944, the fortunes of war had turned against Germany and its allies, and the Red Army was approaching Hungary's borders. Horthy began negotiations with the Soviets. The Germans intervened by sending commando Otto Skorzeny to Budapest. Skorzeny kidnapped Horthy's son Nicholas as he went to negotiate with the Soviets, and forced Horthy to abdicate as Regent on October 15. Horthy spent the rest of the war under house arrest in Germany and was freed in May 1945.
Although the new Yugoslavia demanded he be tried as a war criminal, the Allies refused to do so. In fact, Horthy served as a prosecution witness in the Nuremberg trials in 1946 and then was released. He settled in Portugal, and died there in 1957