Miniature Sheet no. 7: Flood Relief Fund (1940):
Miniature Sheet no. 8: King M. Hunyadi 500th Birth Anniversary (1940):
1-3: M. Horthy Aviation Fund (issued in 1940)
4-6: 20th Anniversary of Horthy's Regency (1940)
7: Flood Relief Fund (1940)
8-12: King M. Hunyadi (1) 500th Birth Anniversary (1940)
13: Annexation of NE Transylvania (2) (1940)
14-16: Transylvanian Relief Fund (1940)
17-20: Artists' Relief Fund (1940)
21-24: M. Horthy Aviation Fund (1941)
25,26: Acquisition of Yugoslav Territory (1941)
27-31: Count S. Szechenyi (3) 150th Birth Anniversary (1941)
32-35: Soldiers' Gifts Fund (1941)
36: Soldiers' Gifts Fund – Christmas Issue (1941)
37-40: M. Horthy Aviation Fund (1942)
41-43: Red Cross Fund (1942)
44: Red Cross Fund (1942)
45: Death of S. Horthy (son of regent M. Horthy) at Eastern Front (1942)
46-51: 1942 Red Cross Fund
52-57: Culture Fund (1942)
58-66: Wounded Soldiers' Fund (1943)
67-70: M. Horthy Aviation Fund (1943)
71: S. Horthy 1st Death Anniversary (1943)
72-74: 1943 Christmas
75-78: L. Kossuth (4) 50th Death Anniversary (1944)
79-82: Red Cross Fund (1944)
83: 1944 St. Margaret (5)
Miniature Sheet no. 9: Artists' Relief Fund (1941):
Hunyadi Corvinus (1440-1490) was one of the greatest Kings of Hungary, ruling
between 1458 and 1490. He was also crowned the King of Bohemia in 1469 and ruled
as the antiking in Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia.
Matthias was born in Transylvania as the second son of J. Hunyadi, a famous Transylvanian warlord who led a number of successful military campaigns against the Ottoman Empire. After the death of Matthias's father, there was a two-year struggle between Hungary's various barons and its Habsburg king (Ladislaus V). Then the lower aristocrats and the people of Pest came out in support of electing Matthias as king, while most barons, thinking the young bookworm would be a weak ruler, also agreed to support his election. Thus in January 1458, Matthias was elected king. He was 15 when he was crowned King of Hungary but he soon learned the finesses of power from his mentor, the Italian Bonfini, regent of Hungary until his adulthood. He has proven a most generous patron and artists from Europe flocked to his courts. His library was one of Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles and philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century.
Matthias gained independence of and power over the barons by dividing them, and by raising a large royal army of mercenaries. At this time Hungary reached one of its greatest ever territorial extent. He was victorious several times against the Ottoman Turks. But, following up his fathers' vision, he set out to build an empire that could not just hold up but beat the Ottoman Empire - for which he deemed necessary the conquering of large parts of the Holy Roman Empire, to have a safe background. Until his death in 1490, Matthias Corvinus gained control of Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia and half of Austria.
Matthias's empire collapsed after his death, since he had no children except for an illegitimate son, John Corvin, whom the noblemen of the country didn't accept as their king.
(2) In August 1940 under the second Vienna arbitration Germany and Italy forced Romania to "give back," half of Transylvania to Hungary; this arguably historically Hungarian area was henceforward known as Northern Transylvania.
(3) Count Stephen Szechenyi (1791–1860) was a Hungarian politician. Influenced by his studies in England, he championed the modernization of Hungarian economic, social, and intellectual life. His political and economic essays stimulated the development of liberal thought in Hungary. In 1848 he was minister of transportation in the first revolutionary government of Hungary, but he resigned when an open break with Austria impended, and he opposed the nationalism of L. Kossuth. In 1859, Szechenyi wrote a satire against the absolute rule of the Austrian minister Bach, incurring serious difficulties with the authorities. Szechenyi, who had suffered a mental breakdown once before, committed suicide.
(4) Kossuth was born in 1802. His father belonged to minor nobility and had a small estate. His mother raised the family as strict Lutherans. Kossuth completed his education at the college of Sárospatak and the University of Pest-Buda. Aged nineteen, he entered his father's legal practice and was popular locally.
Later Kossuth was appointed as deputy at the National Diet. At the time, a struggle to reassert a Hungarian national identity was beginning to emerge. In part, this was also a struggle for reform against the stagnant Austrian government. Kossuth's duties included reporting on Diet proceedings in writing, as the Austrian government, fearing popular dissent, had banned published reports. In 1836 the Diet was dissolved. Kossuth continued to report (in letter form), covering the debates of the county assemblies. The government attempted to suppress the letters and he was in May 1837, with others, arrested on a charge of high treason.
The arrests had caused great indignation. The Diet, which reconvened in 1839, demanded the release of the prisoners, and refused to pass any government measures. The danger of war in 1840 obliged government to give way. Kossuth, emerged from prison unbroken. He had now become a national icon. He was appointed editor of a new Liberal party newspaper. Kossuth did not stop at the publicly reasoned reforms demanded by liberals (the abolition of entail, the abolition of feudal burdens and taxation of the nobles); he went on to broach the possibility of separating from Austria.
In 1844, Kossuth was dismissed from newspaper after a dispute over salary. He continued to agitate on behalf of both political and commercial independence for Hungary. He was the founder of a "Védegylet" society, whose members consumed only Hungarian produce. He also argued for the creation of a Hungarian port at Fiume. In autumn 1847, Kossuth was elected to the new Diet and immediately became chief leader of the Extreme Liberals. In March 1848, shortly after the news of the revolution in Paris had arrived, in a speech of surpassing power he demanded parliamentary government for Hungary and constitutional government for the rest of Austria. He at once became the leader of the European revolution: Batthyány, who formed the first responsible government, appointed Kossuth the Minister of Finance. He began developing the internal resources of the country: re-establishing a separate Hungarian coinage, and using every means to increase national self-consciousness. He also formed a Hungarian army Honvéd.
When Batthyány resigned he was made President of the Committee of National Defence. From this time he was a virtual dictator. Without military experience, he had to control the armies, and he was unable to keep control over the generals or to establish that military co-operation. At the end of the year, when the Austrians were approaching Pest, the government fled to Debrecen, Kossuth took with him the Crown of St Stephen. In November 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated in favour of Franz Josef. The new Emperor revoked all the concessions granted in March and outlawed Kossuth and his colleagues. In April 1849, when the Hungarians had won many successes, he issued the celebrated declaration of Hungarian independence and was appointed Regent. The hopes of ultimate success were frustrated by the intervention of Russia; all appeals to the western powers were vain, and in August Kossuth abdicated. Hungary capitulated to the Russians, who handed over the army to the Austrians.
Kossuth's career was at end. He crossed the Turkish frontier and was received by the Turkish authorities, who refused to surrender him and other fugitives to Austria. Then he went to France, England, USA and Italy where he watched with anxiety every opportunity of once more freeing his country from Austria. He died in Turin in 1894.
(5) Margaret, an English princess, was born in Hungary in about 1047. Her father Edward and his brother, sons of Edmond Ironsides and claimants to the English throne, had been exiled by King Knut.
Margaret’s childhood was spent in the pious atmosphere of the Hungarian court. She was educated by Benedictines, who established monasteries in the country during Stephen’s reign. When Edward the Confessor came to the throne, he invited Margaret’s father to return to England. Margaret was about seven years old when her father took his wife and children back to England. Edward the Confessor died in January 1066. He was succeeded by his first minister Harold and not by Margaret’s brother Edgar. When, within a few short months, the throne of England was taken from Harold by William the Conqueror, Edgar decided that it was time for him, his mother, and his sister to leave England.
On their way back to Hungary their ship was buffeted by a severe storm and was wrecked off of the coast of Scotland. The exiles were warmly received by Malcolm, King of Scotland. Margaret and Malcolm were married in the year 1070. Margaret was a civilizing influence on Malcolm and on the Scottish court. She taught good table manners and good behavior. Margaret began the practice of women doing needlework for the church. She is also remembered for her works of charity and mercy. She founded schools, hospitals, and orphanages. Perhaps her most significant reform was success in bringing the practices of the Scottish church, still under the influences of Celtic Christianity, into line with those of the Roman Church. She died in November 1093, and was declared a saint in 1249.