The Republic of Central Lithuania or simply Central Lithuania was a puppet state created in 1920 after the staged rebellion of soldiers of the 1st Lithuanian-Belarusian Infantry Division of the Polish Army, by secret order of J. Pilsudski. Centered around the historical capital of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, the state was short-lived and did not gain international recognition. For eighteen months the entity served as a buffer state between Poland, upon which it depended, and Lithuania, which claimed the area. Finally, on March 24, 1922, following the general elections held there, it was annexed to Poland. The elections were not recognized by the Republic of Lithuania. Instead, it continued to treat the so-called Vilnius Region as part of its own territory and the city itself as its constitutional capital, with Kaunas being only a temporary seat of government.
It was not until the Polish ultimatum of 1938, when the Lithuanian authorities acquiesced to resume diplomatic relations with Poland, and de facto accepted the borders of its neighbour. After the Soviet-Nazi pact and the the occupation of Poland, Lithuania was given Vilnius, and its surroundings up to 30 km, on October 10, 1939. A part of the region was given to the Belarusian SSR. Lithuanian success was however short-lived: soon afterwards, Lithuania was forced to become the Lithuanian SSR.
The symbols of Central Lithuania were a red flag with Polish White Eagle and Lithuanian Vytis and a coat of arms being a mixture of Polish, Lithuanian and Vilnian symbols, similar to the Coat of Arms of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.