The Dutch East Indies was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Netherlands government in 1800.Japan's World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender, Indonesian nationalists declared independence. The Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 with the exception of the Netherlands New Guinea.
1: William III (1), king of the Netherlands (issued in 1864)
2-4: 1915 Red Cross
5: Queen Wilhelmina (2) accession to the throne 25th anniversary (1923)
6-8: 1928 Airmail set
9-12: For the youth: traditional buildings (1930)
13: First postal service flight from Java to Australia (1931)
1-4: 1931 White cross (3)
5-8: 1932 Salvation army
9: William I of Orange (4) 400th birth anniversary (1933)
1-4: Crisis works of A.M.V.J. (1933)
5-8: Christian military union (1935)
9,10: 1936 salvation army
11: 1937 Fifth world scout jamboree in Vogelenzang, the Netherlands (5)
1-5: 1937 Support fund for indigenous people in need
6: Queen Wilhelmina's reign 40th anniversary (1938)
7,8: 1938 Royal Dutch Indies Airways (6) 10th anniversary
9-13: Central Christian mission bureau in Batavia (1938)
1-4: Social bureau for Dutch East Indies (1939)
5: For the purchase of new airplanes (1941)
6-12: 1941 set
13,14: Queen Wilhelmina's reign 50th anniversary (1948)
15,16: Queen Juliana (7) coronation (1948)
(1) First Dutch East Indies stamp issued in 1846 depicting William III.
William was born in Brussels in 1817 as son of William II of the Netherlands and Queen Anna, sister of Tsar Alexander I of Russia. In his early years, he served in the military. He married Sophie, daughter of King William I of Württemberg, in 1839. He tried to relinquish his right to the throne to his younger brother. His mother convinced him to cancel this action. One year later (in 1849) William became king upon the death of his father. In the first two decades of his reign he dismissed several cabinets. He tried to sell the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg in 1867. The attempt nearly caused a war between Prussia and France, and helped make Luxembourg a fully independent country. William was always popular with the ordinary people, presenting himself as a cordial man. In 1877 Sophie died and in 1879 William decided to marry Princess Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont, a small German principality. In 1880 Wilhelmina was born. She became heiress in 1884 after the death of the last remaining son from William's first marriage. William became seriously ill in 1887. He died in 1890, leaving his young daughter as Queen. Because the Luxembourg crown could only be worn by males at the time, it went to Adolf.
Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Marie of Orange-Nassau; 1880 –1962) was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. She was queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948 and Queen Mother from 1948 to 1962. She ruled the Netherlands for fifty years, longer than any other Dutch monarch.
Outside the Netherlands she is primarily remembered for her role in the Second World War. On 10 May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands, and Queen Wilhelmina and her family fled to the United Kingdom three days later although Queen Wilhelmina had wanted to stay in the Netherlands: she had planned to go to the southern province of Zeeland with her troops in order to coordinate further resistance. In Britain, Queen Wilhelmina took charge of the Dutch government in exile, setting up a chain of command and immediately communicating a message to her people. During the war her photograph was a sign of resistance against the Germans. Queen Wilhelmina broadcast messages to the Dutch people over Radio Oranje. Following the end of World War II, Queen Wilhelmina made the decision not to return to her palace but move into a mansion in The Hague, where she lived for eight months, and she traveled through the countryside to motivate people, sometimes using a bicycle instead of a car. However, in 1947, while the country was still recovering from World War II, the revolt in the oil-rich Dutch East Indies saw sharp criticism of the Queen by the Dutch economic elite. Her loss of popularity and the forced departure from the East Indies under international pressure led to her abdication soon after. On September 4, 1948 Wilhelmina abdicated in favor of her daughter Juliana.
(3) White Cross (Salib Putih) was a social institution helping homeless people in the area formed in the city of Salatiga.
(4) Prince William I of Orange, Count of Nassau (1533 –1584), also widely known as William the Silent was born in the House of Nassau. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau. He was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648.
A wealthy nobleman, William originally served at the court of the governor Margaret of Parma. Unhappy with the lack of political power for the local nobility and the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several military successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by B. Gerard at a time when William's popularity was waning.
As the chief financier and political and military leader of the early years of the Dutch revolt, William is considered a national hero in the Netherlands, even though he was born in Germany, and usually spoke French. Many of the Dutch national symbols can be traced back to William of Orange. The flag of the Netherlands (red, white and blue) is derived from the flag of the prince, which was orange, white and blue. The coat of arms of the Netherlands is based on that of William of Orange. The national anthem of the Netherlands, the Wilhelmus, was originally a propaganda song for William. The national colour of the Netherlands is orange, and it is used, among other things, in clothing of Dutch athletes.
(5) The net results of this set was used to pay the trip of the Netherlands East Indies Boy Scouts to the 5th World Scout Jamboree.
(6) Royal Dutch Indies Airways (KNILM ) was founded in 1928. Its first regular operations were between Batavia (now Jakarta) - Bandung, and Batavia - Semarang, starting on November 1st, 1928. The ceremony was held at Cililitan airport in Batavia (now Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport). Gradually, the services were expanded to include other islands in the archipelago. KNILM did not fly to the Netherlands, as the Amsterdam-Batavia weekly service was operated by KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines). During the Japanese attack of the Dutch East Indies, KNILM was utilized for evacuation flights and transport of troops. After the Indonesian independence the KNILM could no longer operate due to the fighting between Indonesian nationalists and the Dutch military. KNILM was officially disbanded in 1947, and the remaining assets were transferred to KLM.
(7) Born at The Hague in 1909, Juliana was the only child of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands and her husband, Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She was educated at home and at the University of Leiden. She married a German nobleman, Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, in 1937. During the Nazi invasion of the Netherlands Juliana and Bernhard, along with their children escaped to England. Later Juliana took her daughters to greater safety in Canada, where she resided for the duration of the war. Her husband remained with Queen Wilhelmina's government, which had relocated to London.
In April 1945 Juliana returned to a just-liberated Netherlands, taking an active part in the rehabilitation of the country after five years of occupation, destruction, and hunger. She acted as regent during her mother's illness and became queen when Wilhelmina abdicated. As queen, she presided over the post-war transformation of the country into a prosperous, technically developed land with an elaborate social welfare system.
In 1980 she abdicated in favour of her daughter Beatrix. She received the title of princess and continued to be active in work of social welfare.