1: Stamp Day (issued in 1943)
2: 10th Anniversary of Hitler's Assumption of Power (1943)
3: 1943 Nazi Emblem (stamp used to secure special philatelic cancellations)
4-15: Armed Forces and Heroes Day (1943)
16: Day of Youth Obligation (1) (1943)
17-20: Reich Labor Service 8th Anniversary (2) (1943)
21: 10th Brown Ribbon Horse Races at Munich (1943)
22,23: P. Rosegger (3) Birth Centenary (1943)
24: Vienna Grand Prix (1943)
1: Winter Relief Fund 10th Anniversary (1943)
2: Goldsmiths Institution Anniversary (1943)
3: Town of Lubeck 800th Anniversary (1943)
4: 20th Anniversary of Failed Coup Attempt (1943)
5: R. Koch (4) Birth Centenary (1944)
6-8: Air Mail Services 25th Anniversary (1944)
9-12: Mother and Child Social Institution 10th Anniversary (1944)
1: Hitler 54th Birthday (1943)
2: 11th Anniversary of Hitler's March (1944)
3: Hitler 55th Birthday (1944)
1-13: Armed Forces and Heroes Day (1944)
14: Town of Fulda 1200th Anniversary (1944)
15-20: Postal Employees' Fund (1944)
21,22: National Service Exhibition (1944)
23: Albert University 400th Anniversary: Duke Albrecht (5) (1944)
24: 7th Innsbruck Shooting Competition (1944)
1: 11th Brown Ribbon Horse Races at Munich (1944)
2: Vienna Grand Prix (1944)
3: Goldsmiths Institution Anniversary (1944)
4: Stamp Day (1944)
5: 21th Anniversary of Failed Coup Attempt (1944)
6: 600th Anniversary of Municipal Law in Oldenburg (1945)
7: Proclamation of the Peoples' Army (6) (1945)
8,9: SA (7) and SS (8) Units (1945)
(1) On the Day of Youth Obligation all German boys and girls had to take an oath of allegiance to Hitler.
(2) During the
Weimar Republic, in 1931 the Government established work camps to house mostly
young men who volunteered for labor service. The purpose of the program was
to create jobs for unemployed youth as a result of the world-wide depression.
The NAZIs seized power in 1933. The RAD or Reich Labor Service was established in July 1934. At the beginning it was instituted as a "make-work program" to help alleviate the depression of Germany in 1934. It was expanded on a nation-wide level and made compulsory in 1935. The RAD was the official state and party labor service providing jobs for unemployed young men. The law required all male Aryan Germans (17 and 25 years of age) to serve in the RAD for 6 months. Boys who entered university could put off their military service. The RAD undertook the construction of Germany's innovative Autobahn system as well as other roads, land reclamation, drainage projects and soil conservation. The RAD was also helped to construct military fortifications and installations. The NAZIs focused on gaining the allegiance of jobless, disaffected young men. One effort to appeal to this group over political rivals, was to organize labor camps.
During WW2 the RAD was militarized and by 1943 was armed. The RAD continued working on construction projects, but they also were given many military assignments, including laying minefields and working on anti-tank defenses. As the war continued, more and more men of younger ages were drafted into the military.
(3) Peter Rosegger
(1843-1918) was an Austrian poet from the province of Styria. He was a farmer's
boy and grew up in the forests and fields. His physical constitution was not
sufficient for him to become a farmer like his father, so, he became a traveling
tailor at the age of seventeen.
His interest in literature prevailed, although he earned little money. He spent what he could afford on books and soon began to write himself. Eventually, he was discovered by the publisher of the Graz-based newspaper Tagespost. He realized Rosegger's talent as an author and enabled him to attend the Academy for Trade and Industries in Graz. He left the academy in 1869. Soon after that, he was offered a chance to publish his literary works. Rosegger accepted, and his first book, Tales from Styria, was released in 1871.
Rosegger went on to become a most productive poet and author as well as an insightful teacher and visionary. In his later years, he was honored by officials from various Austrian universities. German emperor Wilhelm II, as well as the Austrian emperor Franz Josef gave Rosegger medals of honor. He became citizen of honor in Graz and Vienna.
(4) Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (1843-1910) was a German physician. He became famous for the discovery of the tubercle bacillus and the cholera bacillus and for his development of Koch's postulates. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905. He is considered one of the founders of bacteriology.
(5) Duke Albrecht II von Brandenburg-Ansbach (1490-1568) was the first German prince, who introduced the reformation, and it was him also, who created the Königsberg university in 1544.
In the army of Kaiser Maximilians I he received in 1511 the high master of the German Medal. in 1525 on the advice of Luther he converted the medal country into a lay duchy, in which he inserted the Evangelist confession.
(6) As the war took its course and German arms found themselves more often on the defensive, the home front was being extolled to undertake ever greater hardships to support their men in the field. The philatelic topics became more militantly oriented with each passing year. In the closing days of the war all men over 16 were pressed into service in the Volkssturm, a "Peoples Army" under the aegis of Propaganda Minister Dr. Josef Goebbels. The German post office dutifully issued their commemorative for it shortly after the edict was published. By then it was too late and the units of old men and boys were usually turned away by the very Wehrmacht officers they were sent to aid. The ones that weren't sent back either promptly surrendered, or were needlessly slaughtered.
(7) The Sturmabteilung (SA, German for "Storm Division" is usually translated as stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. It played a key role in Hitler's rise to power in the 1930’s. SA men were often known as brownshirts from the colour of their uniform and to distinguish them from the SS who were known as blackshirts. The SA was also the first Nazi paramilitary group to develop pseudo-military titles for bestowal upon its members. The SA ranks would be adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief among them the SS. The term Sturmabteilung originally came from the specialized assault troops used by Germany in 1918 in World War I. Instead of a large mass assault, the Sturmabteilung were organized into small teams of a few soldiers each.
In Munich in the fall of 1920, Hitler himself created the Ordnertruppen, a body of muscular Nazis, ex-soldiers, and beer hall brawlers in order to protect his speeches and disrupt his opponents. It originally functioned as a group of bodyguards to enforce order at Nazi gatherings. It was shortly changed to Sportabteilung, a cover name meaning "Sports section," and came to be known by the initials SA. In late 1921, the name was changed to the current name Sturmabteilung. Under their popular leader Ernst Rohm, the SA grew in importance within the Nazi power structure, eventually claiming thousands of members. The SA carried out numerous acts of violence against socialist groups throughout the 1920’s.
When Hitler took power in 1933, the SA became increasingly anxious for power and saw themselves as the replacement for the German army. This angered the regular army who were already quite annoyed at the Nazi party. It also led to tension with other leaders within the party who saw Rohm's increasingly powerful SA as a threat to their own personal ambitions. The SA was also considered a dangerous and radical organization, especially since common SA practice was to swear loyalty to local SA commanders rather than Hitler or the Nazi Party as a whole.
In order to ally himself with moderate forces within the German Army and to strengthen his position within the Nazi Party, Hitler ordered the execution of the leadership of the SA, which took place on the night of June 30, 1934, on what is known as the Night of the Long Knives. V. Lutze became the new leader of the SA, and the organization was soon marginalized in the Nazi power structure. The SA lost all influence after 1936, when Nazi Germany began drafting its members into the armed forces.
(8) The Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron), or SS, was a large paramilitary organization that belonged to the Nazi party. The Nazis regarded the SS as an elite unit, a Party's "praetorian guard", with all SS personnel selected on racial and ideological grounds. The SS was distinguished from the German military, Nazi Party, and German state officials by their own SS ranks, SS unit insignia, and SS uniforms. The SS fighting units, called the Waffen-SS, were to evolve into highly skilled and effective soldiers, in many cases superior in these respects to the German army. The SS were, however, notorious for their participation in enforcing Nazi policies which often constituted war crimes and crimes against humanity.
The most recognizable branches of the SS, were the departments that comprised the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA, Reich Security Head Office), Sicherheitsdienst (SD, Security Service), Einsatzgruppen (Special Mission Groups), the Concentration Camp service known as the SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV, Death's Head Formations), and the Gestapo (Secret State Police).
The predecessor to the SS was first formed in 1923 as a company of the SA tasked with protecting senior leaders of the Nazi Party at rallies, speeches and other public events. After the failed 1923 Putsch by the Nazi Party, the SA was abolished, yet returned in 1925. On January 6, 1929 Hitler appointed Heinrich Himmler as the leader of the SS and, by the end of 1932 the SS had 52,000 members. By the end of next year, it had over 209,000 members.
Before 1932, the SS wore the same uniform as the SA, except for a black tie and a black cap with a death's head symbol on it. Later they adopted a black uniform. The Waffen SS wore a field grey uniform. During the war Waffen-SS units wore a range of camouflage uniforms.
The SS also received control of the Gestapo in 1934 and, that same year, Adolf Hitler had given the SS jurisdiction over all concentration camps and a new organization, the SS-Totenkopfverbande had been established as the SS Concentration Camp service.