Miniature Sheet no. 7: A. Hitler 48th Birthday (issued in 1937):
Miniature Sheet no. 8: National Philatelic Exhibition in Berlin (1937):
Miniature Sheet no. 9: Culture Fund (1937):
Miniature Sheet no. 10: 4th Brown Ribbon Horse Races at the Munich-Riem Race Course (1937):
Miniature Sheet no. 11: 9th Congress of NSDAP Party in Nuremberg (1937):
1: Air Protection League (1937)
2-10: Winter Relief Fund: Ships (1937)
11: 5th Anniversary of Hitler's Assumption of Power (1) (1938)
12: Plebiscite in Austria (1938)
13: 1938 Plebiscite in Austria (2) (small format)
14-17: Gymnastic and Sport Festival in Breslau (1938)
18,19: F. von Zeppelin (3) Birth Centenary (1938)
20: 5th Brown Ribbon Horse Races at Munich (1938)
21: Opening of the Theatre in Saarbrucken (4) (1938)
22-30: Winter Relief Fund: German Landscape and Flowers (1938)
31: Annexation of Sudetenland (5) (1938)
32-34: International Automobile Show in Berlin (6) (1939)
35: Young Workers' Proffesional Competitions (1939)
36: Horticultural Exhibition in Stuttgart (1939)
37: German Derby 70th Anniversary (1939)
1: 6th Brown Ribbon Horse Races at Munich (1939)
2: National Art Day (1939)
3-14: Postal Employees' Fund (1939)
15,16: Unification of Gdansk (Danzig) to German Reich (7) (1939)
17-25: Winter Relief Fund: Buildings (1939)
26: Newspaper Stamp (1939)
1: A. Hitler 49th Birthday (1938)
2: 10th Congress of NSDAP Party in Nuremberg (1938)
3: Hitler 50th Birthday (1939)
4: Labor Day (1939)
5: 11th Congress of NSDAP Party in Nuremberg (1939)
6-8: Nuerburgring Grand Prix (8)
1933 one week before the election was due to take place, the Reichstag building
burned down. Hitler immediately declared that it was the signal for a communist
takeover of the nation. President Hindenburg agreed to pass the Law for the
Protection of the People and the State which gave Hitler what he wanted - a
ban on the Communists and Socialists taking part in an election campaign.
The election took place in March. Hitler did not get the number of votes he wanted but he did get enough to get over a 50% majority in the Reichstag. After the burning down of the Reichstag, politicians had nowhere to meet. The Kroll Opera House in Berlin was chosen. Elected officials were due to meet to discuss and vote on Hitler's Enabling Law.
As politicians neared the building, they found it surrounded by SS and SA members who tried to ensure that only Nazi or Nationalist politicians got into the building. The vote for this law was crucial as it gave Hitler a vast amount of power. The law basically stated that any bill only needed Hitler's signature and within 24 hours that bill would become law in Germany. With only Nazis and other right wing politicians inside the Opera House, the bill was quickly passed into law. The act gave Hitler what he wanted - dictatorial power.
On 7th April 1933, Nazi officials were put in charge of all local government in the provinces. On May 2nd 1933, trade unions were abolished, their funds taken and their leaders put in prison. The workers were given a May Day holiday in return. On July 14th 1933, a law was passed making it illegal to form a new political party. It also made the Nazi Party the only legal political party in Germany.
(2) A union between Germany and Austria had been forbidden under the terms of the Versailles Treaty signed after WW1. Hitler had always seen Austria as being part of Germany. He, himself, had been born in the Austrian town of Brannau, but for all his life Hitler considered himself German. In February 1938, Hitler gave the Austrian chancellor Schuschnigg a list of ten demands. The chief demand was that a man called Seyss-Inquart should be made Minister of the Interior. Seyss-Inquart was an Austrian Nazi and such a position would give him control of the Austrian police. Such a demand was clearly unacceptable to Schuschnigg.
The chancellor tried a different ploy. He made it known that he would order a plebiscite about whether the people of Austria wanted a free Austria or not. Hitler could not be sure that he would get the result he wanted from this proposed plebiscite. Hitler demanded that the plebiscite should not take place and that Schuschnigg should resign. If neither of these took place, he told the chancellor that he would order his military to invade Austria.
Schuschnigg could not take this risk and he resigned along with his cabinet. The only member of his cabinet not to resign was Seyss-Inquart. As the sole member of the Austrian government, he invited German troops into Austria in March 1938. On March 15, 1938, Hitler entered Vienna in triumph. The plebiscite turned out over 99 % in favour of the "anschluss" (political union of Germany and Austria) and Austria became part of the German Reich.
(3) Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838-1917) was the founder of the Zeppelin airship company. Zeppelin attended the war school and became a lieutenant in 1858. The following year, 1859, he was enlisted in the engineer corps and participated as an observer in the American Civil War, the Austro-Prussian War and the Franco-Prussian War. In 1906 he was promoted to general of cavalry.
From the 1880s, Zeppelin was pre-occupied with the problem of guidable balloons and in 1899 he started constructing the first guidable rigid airship. The flights became more and more successful, igniting a public euphoria which allowed the Count to pursue the development of his vehicle. In fact the second version of his airship was entirely financed through donations and a lottery.
In 1908 the military administration bought the fully functional airship LZ 3 and used it as Z1. From 1909, zeppelins also were used in civilian aviation. Up until 1914 the German aviation association transported nearly 35,000 people on over 1500 flights without an incident.
Count von Zeppelin died in 1917, before the end of World War I. He therefore didn't witness either the provisional shutdown of the Zeppelin project due to the Treaty of Versailles or the second resurgence of the zeppelins under his successor H. Eckener. Finally, the crash of the LZ129 Hindenburg in 1937 closed the chapter of these enormous rigid airships once and for all.
(4) The neo-classical State Theatre was opened in 1938 in Saarbrücken - Capital of the Saarland with a performance of 'The Flying Dutchman'. At the time it was the most modern theatre in Europe. The surtax was for Hitler's National Culture Fund.
(5) By the Versailles Treaty, the lands of Bohemia and Moravia became part of the new state of Czechoslovakia. The controversies between the Czechs and the Germans intensified in the 1930s and the German minority (a majority in the Sudetenland), led by the Nazi politician K. Henlein, was gradually escalating its demands.
Conflict over the Sudetenland began immediately after the political union of Germany and Austria in 1938. The German Nazis, together with their Sudeten German allies, claimed throughout the year that the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia were being mistreated and oppressed by the Czech government, and demanded incorporation of the region into the Third Reich. The Western powers urged the Czechs to comply with Germany believing that they can prevent a general war by appeasing Hitler.
Hitler agreed to meet representatives from France, the United Kingdom, and Italy at the conference in Munich, out of which came the Munich Agreement ceding the Sudetenland to Germany. The Czechs themselves were not included in these discussions. The Sudetenland would be occupied between October 1 and October 10. This unification with the Third Reich was followed by the flight and forcible expulsion of the region's Czech population to remaining parts of Czechoslovakia.
The surtax was for Hitler's National Culture Fund.
(6) The last International Automobile Show (IAA) before the Second World War was held in 1939 in Berlin, only six months before the outbreak of war. At this 29th IAA, the more than 825,000 visitors - a new record in the history of the IAA - were able to admire not only a number of technical marvels but also for the first time two examples of the new "people's car", the Volkswagen, which was later to write automotive history as the "Beetle".
The surtax was for Hitler's National Culture Fund.
(7) After World War I, Poland became independent, and the Poles hoped to receive Gdansk to provide the free access to the sea, which they had been promised by the Allies. However, the city was not placed under full Polish sovereignty, but was made into the Free City of Gdansk, an independent free city under the auspices of the League of Nations, governed by its largely German-speaking residents but with its external affairs largely under Polish control. Because the German authorities in Danzig obstructed Polish trade and restricted Poles from settling in the city, the Polish government decided to build the nearby seaport of Gdynia, which in the following years took the majority of total Polish exports.
Hitler demanded unimpeded access to the Polish Corridor for the purpose of building railroad links between divided German territory. He also insisted on the immediate reincorporation of Danzig into the German Reich. Tensions arising from quarrels between Germany and Poland over control of the Free City served as a pretext for the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and the outbreak of World War II.
(8) The Nuerburgring, known as simply "the Ring" by enthusiasts, is the name of a famous motorsport race track in Nürburg,
The Nuerburgring was born in 1927. At this time, Germany had to build a modern tool in order to develop and improve its technology for cars and bikes. Although there were very few permanent tracks back then, Germany was nevertheless at the end of the queue among the others main countries. So german automobile-clubs, gathered into the ADAC, launched this colossal project. They were supported by the german governement that saw an opportunity to provide work to the poor population.
The construction began in April 1925 and it ended 2 years later. At some place, the track followed roughly existing trails, whereas elsewhere it was built in the middle of nothing. But if a normal road should have avoided the relief, here, engineers coped with it in a rather direct way: steep climbs or descents were not a problem for a track designed for testing vehicles. On the 18th and 19th June 1927 the first races at a national level took place, followed soon by two German Grand Prix: bikes (World Cycling Championship) and cars (German Formula One Grand Prix). In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and at weekends, as a one-way toll road.
The track was then made of two parts: the nothern loop, our famous Nordschleife, clearly the most complex and the longest with its 22.8 km and the southern loop, the Sudschleife, shorter with only 7.7 km.
Generally, major events were held on the NS, while the sudshcleife often received races of a lower level, along with bikes races. But there were many exceptions to this: bikes went on the Nothern loop , and F1 knew the Southern loop too. Sometimes, during the first years, the two were linked to form a 28 km monster. In 1939 the full Ring was used for the last time in major racing events. The pits zone connected the two circuit, but it's considered a part of the Nordschleife. Sometimes when a race was occuring on the Nordschleife, drivers were allowed to take the Sudschleife for warm up laps which was much shorter than to complete a normal lap on the nothern loop.