1934 Welfare Fund: Occupations:
1-3: Airmail Set (1934)
4-7: Remembrance of the Lost Colonies of Germany: German Colonizers (1934)
8,9: Saar Plebiscite (1934)
10: 6th Congress of NSDAP Party (1) in Nuremberg (1934)
11: Death of President P. von Hindenburg (2) (1934)
12: F. von Schiller (3) 175th Birth Anniversary (1934)
13: Return of Saar to Germany (4) (1935)
1: National Mourning Day (1935)
2: Sport Games Festival (1935)
3: H. Schutz (5) 350th Birth Anniversary (1935)
4: J. S. Bach (6) 250th Birth Anniversary (1935)
5: G. F. Handel (7) 250th Birth Anniversary (1935)
6-9: German Railways (8) Centenary (1935)
10: Hitler's Youth (9) World Meeting (1935)
11: 7th Congress of NSDAP Party in Nuremberg (1935)
12-21: Welfare Fund: National Costumes (1935)
22: 12th Anniversary of Failed Coup Attempt (10) (1935)
23-25: 4th Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1935)
26: Lufthansa Decennial (11) (1936)
1,2: 50th Anniversary of the Invention of Automobile and International Automobile Show in Berlin: G. Daimler (12) and K. Benz (13) (1936)
3: Flight of L.Z. 129 to North America (14) (1936)
4: O. von Guericke (15) 250th Death Anniversary (1936)
5-12: 11th Summer Olympics in Berlin (16) (1936)
13: 6th Local Government Congress (1936)
1: 3rd Brown Ribbon Horse Races at Munich (1936)
2: Leisure Congress in Hamburg (1936)
3: 8th Congress of NSDAP Party in Nuremberg (1936)
4-12: Winter Relief Fund: Modern Buildings (1936)
Miniature Sheets no. 5 and 6: 11th Summer Olympics in Berlin (1936):
the beginning of 1918, a party called the Free Committee for a German Workers'
Peace was created in Bremen. In 1919, its name was changed to the German Workers'
Party. In order to investigate the party, German army intelligence sent a young
corporal, Adolf Hitler, to monitor party activities. However, he was impressed
by what he saw, and he joined it. Later the party was renamed the National Socialist
German labour party (NSDAP). G. Feder served as their economic theoretician
and R. Jung supplied the young party with a ready-made ideology. It was a 25-point
program. Hitler added his ideas about foreign policy and J. Streicher added
his more virulent anti-semitic views.
After the failure of their coup attempt in Bavaria, the Nazis competed poorly in elections for the remainder of the 1920s. In the election of 1930, however, the Nazis, propelled by Germany's economic problems in the incipient Great Depression, increased their vote dramatically, becoming the second largest party in the Reichstag. The NSDAP improved its position in the years thereafter, and in the elections of 1932 the party became the largest voting bloc in the Reichstag. The Nazis never won an electoral majority on their own, but Hitler was appointed Chancellor of a coalition government by president Paul von Hindenburg in January 1933. On February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building caught fire. This Reichstag fire was promptly blamed on the Communists, and was used as an excuse by the Nazis to close the Communist Party of Germany's offices, ban its press and arrest its leaders. Furthermore, Hitler convinced the president Hindenburg to sign the Reichstag Fire Decree, abolishing most of the human rights provided for by the 1919 constitution of the Weimar Republic. Later Hitler was given the right to rule by his own decree and to further suspend many civil liberties. On July 14, 1933, the Nazis banned the forming of any new parties. Thus, Germany became a one-party state under the NSDAP.
The Nazi Party included several paramilitary groups, such as the SA, the SS, and the Gestapo, all of which were integrated into the Nazi government after 1933. The SA were the main force that were used to disrupt other government movements. For instance, the SA were the main protagonists in the 1933 'Burning of the Books'. The SS were the more secret force, more ruthless and they eventually wiped out the SA in June 1933 in the Night of the Long Knives. The SA wore brown shirts while the SS wore black shirts.
(2) Paul von Hindenburg (1847–1934) was a German field marshal and president (1925–1934). He was born in Poznan (then in Prussia). He fought in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was appointed (1878) to the general staff. Though retired after 1911, he was made commander in East Prussia early in World War I. In 1916, Hindenburg, by then a field marshal, succeeded General Falkenhayn as commander of all German armies. From March to July, 1918, Hindenburg launched a costly offensive into France, but the Allied counteroffensive led to the German defeat and surrender. After the overthrow of the emperor, Hindenburg and the army swore an oath of allegiance to the republican government. Although Hindenburg was to be tried as a war criminal under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the special German court at Leipzig never even indicted him. After the death of the German president F. Ebert in 1925, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for the office. As president, his powers were very limited. In 1932 he was reelected. In January, 1933, the nearly senile president, fearing civil war, gave in to his advisers and appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor. Hindenburg continued as a figurehead until his death.
C. Friedrich von Schiller was born in 1759, in Marbach, Germany. When he was
13 years old, Schiller entered the Duke's military academy. He studied law and
later turned to medicine.
Schiller was a foremost German dramatist. His first play was The Robbers (1781). Later he wrote his first major poetic drama, Don Carlos. Schiller also wrote poetry and essays. His History of the Revolt of the United Netherlands won him fame as a scholar and led to his appointment as a professor of history at the University of Jena. He continued to write and translate and, beginning in 1798, produced his masterpiece, the Wallenstein cycle. He died in Weimar in 1805.
(4) In 1935 a plebiscite was held in the Saar Region according to the terms of the Versailles Treaty. The plebiscite was to determine whether the people wished to join France or Germany. The vote was 90% in favor of unification with Germany and, on March 1st, the German Reich expanded for the first time.
Schutz (1585–1672) was a German composer and organist. He is regarded
as the most important German composer before J. S. Bach and one of the most
important composers of the 17th century. He wrote what is thought to be the
first German opera, Dafne, performed in 1627.
Schutz was born in Kostritz. After being a choir-boy he went on to study law at Marburg, before going to Venice to study music. In 1615 he moved to Dresden to work as court composer to the Elector of Saxony. He held his Dresden post until the end of his life.
Schutz’s best known works are in the field of sacred music, ranging from solo voice with instrumental accompaniment to a cappella choral music. Representative works include his three books of Symphoniae sacrae, the Psalms of David, The Seven Last Words on the Cross and his three Passion settings.
Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) was a German composer and organist of the Baroque
period, and is regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time. His works,
noted for their intellectual depth, technical command, and artistic beauty,
have provided inspiration to nearly every musician in the European tradition,
from Mozart to Schoenberg.
Bach began copying music and playing various instruments at an early age. His mother died when he was still a young boy and his father suddenly died when Bach was nine, at which time Bach moved in with his older brother. While in his brother's house, he continued copying, studying, and playing music.
In 1708 Bach took a position as court organist and concert master at the ducal court in Weimar. Here he had opportunity not only to play the organ but also to compose for it and play a more varied repertoire of concert music.
In 1723, he was appointed Cantor and Musical Director of St. Thomas church in Leipzig. This post required him not only to instruct the students in singing but also to provide weekly music at the two main churches in Leipzig. Bach endeavored to compose a new church piece, or cantata, every week. In this period he produced St. Matthew Passion for Good Friday, which is considered one of his greatest masterpieces. Johann Sebastian Bach died in 1750.
Frideric Handel (1685-1759) was a German-born British Baroque music composer.
His best-known work is Messiah, an oratorio set to texts from the King James
Bible. It is customarily performed at Christmas time.
Handel was born in Prussia. At the age of seven he was a skillful performer on the harpsichord and organ, and at nine he began to compose music. In 1702, in obedience to his father's wishes, he began the study of law, but the following year he abandoned law for music and accepted a position as violinist in the orchestra of the opera-house at Hamburg. Here his first two operas, Almira and Nero, were produced.
In 1710 Handel became Kapellmeister to George, elector of Hanover, afterward George I of Great Britain. He visited London in 1710 and settled there permanently in 1712. In 1727 he was commissioned to write four anthems for the coronation ceremony of King George II. One of these, Zadok the Priest, has been played at every coronation ceremony since. Handel was also a director of the Royal Academy of Music.
In 1751 Handel became blind. He died in London in 1759. Handel's compositions include some fifty operas, twenty-three oratorios, and a large amount of church music.
(8) The railway revolution in Germany began on the 7th December 1835 when the first German train (locomotive was built in England) ran between Nurnberg and Furth. Over time, the various lands in Germany started building their own railway systems, which began to connect the corners of Germany together. The railways of Germany were nationalized in 1920, but after the Second World War, the railways were split again, one each for East and West Germany. On the 1st January 1994, after the re-unification of the two halves of Germany, the Deutsche Bahn AG was formed, and the railway systems were merged once again.
Hitler Youth (German: Hitler-Jugend) was a paramilitary organization of the
Nazi Party. It was founded in 1922 and was based in Munich, Bavaria, serving
as a recruiting ground for new stormtroopers of the SA. The group was disbanded
in 1923 following the abortive Beer Hall Putsch but was re-established in 1926,
a year after the Nazi Party had been reorganized.
The Hitler Youth had the basic motivation of training future "Aryan supermen" and future soldiers who would serve the Third Reich faithfully. Physical and military training took precedence over academic and scientific education in Hitler Youth organizations. Youths in camps learned to use weapons, built up their physical strength, learned war strategies, and were indoctrinated in anti-Semitism.
Members of the Hitler Youth wore paramilitary uniforms very similar to the Nazi Party. In 1945 during the battle of Berlin, the Hitler Youth formed a major part of the last line of German defense, inflicted heavy losses on the Red Army, and outperformed most other units of the Volkssturm.
Beer Hall Putsch of November 1923, was Hitler’s attempt to overthrow the
Weimar government of president F. Ebert and establish a right wing nationalistic
one in its place.
On 8th November, 1923, the Bavarian government held a meeting of about 3,000 officials. While Gustav von Kahr, the prime minister of Bavaria was making a speech, Adolf Hitler and armed stormtroopers entered the building. Hitler jumped onto a table, fired two shots in the air and told the audience that the National Revolution had began. Leaving the SA to guard the officials, Hitler took Kahr, Otto von Lossow, the commander of the Bavarian Army and Hans von Lossow, the commandant of the Bavarian State Police into an adjoining room. Hitler told the men that he was to be the new leader of Germany and offered them posts in his new government. Aware that this would be an act of high treason, the three men were initially reluctant to agree to this offer. Hitler was furious and threatened to shoot them and then commit suicide. After this the three men agreed.
Hitler now planned to march on Berlin and remove the national government. The next day Hitler and 3,000 armed supporters of the Nazi Party marched through Munich in an attempt to gain support. At Odensplatz they found the road blocked by the Munich police. As they refused to stop, the police fired into the ground in front of the marchers. The stormtroopers returned the fire and during the next few minutes many people were killed and wounded. When the firing started Hitler threw himself to the ground dislocating his shoulder. Hitler lost his nerve and ran to a nearby car. Although the police were outnumbered, the Nazis followed their leader's example and ran away. After hiding in a friend's house for several days, Hitler was arrested and put on trial.
At his trial Hitler was allowed to turn the proceedings into a political rally, and although he was found guilty he only received the minimum sentence of five years, serving only a little over eight months.
(11) Lufthansa was formed in 1926 from a merger between "Deutsche Aero Lloyd" (DAL) and "Junkers Luftverkehr". At first it was named "Deutsche Luft Hansa Aktiengesellschaft" but was renamed to "Lufthansa" in 1933. The new airline inherited its crane logo from DAL and the blue-and-yellow house colours from Junkers. It commenced scheduled flights on April 6 with a fleet of 162 aircraft, of 18 different types. A flying expedition to China was the event of the year.
(12) Gottlieb Daimler (1834–1900) was a key figure in the development of the gasoline engine and the invention and development of the automobile.
Born in Schorndorf, he served an apprenticeship as a gunsmith and spent a period abroad studying mechanical engineering before attending technical college in Stuttgart. Daimler developed in Bad Cannstatt the world's first motorbike in 1885, and world's first four-wheeled automobile in 1886.
(13) Karl F. Benz (1844–1929) was a German automobile engineer. He is generally regarded as one of the inventors of the petrol-powered automobile.
Born the son of an engine driver, Benz went to school at the Karlsruhe grammar school and Karlsruhe Polytechnic. He founded his first company, supplying building materials, in 1871. Benz started Benz & Co. in 1883 in Mannheim to produce industrial engines. It was there that he invented and patented various two-stroke engines. He later heard of a man, Gottlieb Daimler, who was working on a four wheeled vehicle. Daimler inspired Karl and he started working on his own ‘motorwagen’, with a four-stroke engine. Benz designed not only his engine, which was a single-cylinder, water-cooled, 958 cm³, unit, but the whole three wheeled vehicle, which was first driven through Mannheim in 1885 by his wife Bertha. On January 29, 1886, he was granted a patent on it and in July he introduced the first gasoline-powered automobile.
In 1903 Benz retired from Benz & Co., but he remained a member of the supervisory board until his death. The Benz and Daimler firms merged to form Daimler-Benz in 1926 - the company's cars since then are called Mercedes-Benz.
(14) The LZ129 was an airship meant to support the earlier LZ127 „Graf Zeppelin“ which was not capable of handling the increased traffic volume on its own. Start of construction was in 1932, and after unsuccessful attempts to acquire the safer helium from the USA, the highly explosive hydrogen gas had to be used for lift. As a safety measure against fire, all passengers had to submit their matches and lighters, mainly fireproof materials were used during construction, and the only room where smoking was allowed was buried deep inside the passenger area.
The airship went on its first trials on march 4th, 1936, over the Lake Constance. Regular service to south america started in autumn 1936, and the first trip to north america was scheduled for may 4th, 1937. With a crew of 36 and 60 passengers, the LZ129 approached Lakehurst in the evening of may 6th, when during the landing manoeuvre the airship’s stern exploded. Only seconds later, the giant structure was engulfed in flames and dropped to earth from about 60m altitude. Only 61 people survived. The reasons were never fully uncovered, but to date the theory seems most probable that burnable materials were used to coat the outer sheath of the hull, and ignition was due to static electricity. The USA were still reluctant to sell helium to the German Reich, and, consequently, this was the end for the Zeppelins.
(15) Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician (mayor of Magdeburg from 1646 to 1676). His major scientific achievement was the establishment of the physics of vacuums. He invented the piston air pump to produce a vacuum and investigated the properties of the vacuum in many experiments. Guericke also applied the barometer to weather prediction and thus prepared the way for meteorology. His later works focused on electricity, but little is preserved of his results. He invented the first electrostatic generator.
(16) In 1931, the International Olympic Committee awarded the 1936 Summer Olympics to German Reich. The choice signaled Germany's return to the world community after its isolation in the aftermath of defeat in World War I. Germany hosted games at Berlin. These games were televised by two German firms. This marked the first live television coverage of a sports event in world history.
The Nazi regime tried to camouflage its violent racist policies while it hosted the Summer Olympics. Most anti-Jewish signs were temporarily removed and newspapers toned down their harsh rhetoric. Thus, the regime exploited the Olympic Games to present foreign spectators and journalists with a false image of a peaceful, tolerant Germany. But before, in April 1933, an "Aryans only" policy was instituted in all German athletic organizations. Non-Aryans were systematically excluded from German sports facilities and associations.
Forty-nine athletic teams from around the world competed in the Berlin Olympics, more than in any previous Olympics. Germany fielded the largest team. For the first time the Olympic Flame was brought to the Olympic Town by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece. The Canadian Olympic Team was the only olympic team from a non-fascist country to salute Hitler (in a gesture of friendship) while marching by during opening ceremonies.
Germany emerged victorious from the XIth Olympiad. German athletes captured the most medals, and German hospitality and organization won the praises of visitors. While Germany dominated the games, the many triumphs by citizens of other nations was seen as a rebuke to racist Nazi philosophies. In particular, the black sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens won 4 gold medals. The tale of Hitler snubbing Owens at the ensuing medal ceremony is, however, untrue.