1-4: 1927 German Emergency Aid: P. von Hindenburg (1) 80th birthday
5-9: 1928 German Emergency Aid
10-14: 1929 German Emergency Aid
1-2: The withdrawal of last allied troops from the Rheinland (2) (1930)
3-6: 1930 German Emergency Aid
7-10: 1931 German Emergency Aid
11-15: 1932 German Emergency Aid
Inaugural celebrations of the newly-elected German parliament (3) (1933): Frederick the Great (4):
(1) Paul von Hindenburg (1847–1934) was a German field marshal and president (1925–1934). He was born in Poznan (then in Prussia). He fought in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was appointed (1878) to the general staff. Though retired after 1911, he was made commander in East Prussia early in World War I. In 1916, Hindenburg, by then a field marshal, succeeded General Falkenhayn as commander of all German armies. From March to July, 1918, Hindenburg launched a costly offensive into France, but the Allied counteroffensive led to the German defeat and surrender. After the overthrow of the emperor, Hindenburg and the army swore an oath of allegiance to the republican government. Although Hindenburg was to be tried as a war criminal under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the special German court at Leipzig never even indicted him. After the death of the German president F. Ebert in 1925, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for the office. As president, his powers were very limited. In 1932 he was reelected. In January, 1933, the nearly senile president, fearing civil war, gave in to his advisers and appointed Adolf Hitler chancellor. Hindenburg continued as a figurehead until his death.
(2) Following the First World War, the Rhine Province and the entire Rhineland region on the west bank was occupied by the Entente Powers under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The occupation was intended to last until 1935 but he last Allied troops left Germany five years prior to that date in 1930 in a good-will reaction to the Weimar Republic's policy of reconciliation.
(3) March 21, 1933 has become known as the 'Day of Potsdam' in German history. After the Reichstag in Berlin was burned down, a new location was sought for the inaugural celebrations of the newly-elected German Reichstag (parliament), and it was found in Potsdam. In the Garrison Church, in which the Prussian kings Frederick William I and Frederick II were then buried, the German president Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as the Reich's chancellor.
(4) Frederick II (1712 – 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. In his role as a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire, he was Frederick IV of Brandenburg. He became known as Frederick the Great.
Upon ascending to the Prussian throne, he attacked Austria and claimed Silesia during the Silesian Wars, winning military acclaim for himself and Prussia. Near the end of his life, Frederick united most of his disconnected realm through the First Partition of Poland.
Frederick was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. He modernized the Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance throughout his realm. Frederick patronized the arts and philosophers. Frederick is buried at his favorite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Because he died childless, Frederick was succeeded by his nephew, Frederick William II of Prussia, son of his brother.