1,2: 1918/19 Hradcany Castle (1)
3: 1919 Express Stamp
4: 1919 Newspaper Stamp
5: 1919 Hradcany Castle
6: 1919 Hradcany Castle (no sun)
7: 1919/20 Hradcany Castle (no sun and no bush)
8,9: Czech Legion (1919)
10-12: Overprints on Austrian and Hungarian Stamps (1919)
1: T. G. Masaryk (1920)
2: Dove With Letter (1920)
3,4: Chainbreaker Allegory (1920)
5: Hussite (2) With Chalice (1920)
6: Science & Industry Allegory (1920)
7: 1926 Newspaper Stamp
8: 1925 Masaryk Portrait (colored numerals)
9: 1925/26 Masaryk (vertical laurel leaves)
10: 1925/26 Masaryk (small format)
11: 1926/27 Masaryk (white numerals)
12: 1927 Masaryk (laurel leaves pointed outwards)
13-19: 1927/29 Landscapes
20: Coat of Arms (1929)
21-27: 1929/31 Landscapes
28,29: T. G. Masaryk (1930)
1-3: Landscapes (1932)
4: Commercial Printed Matter (1934)
5-8: 1935/36 Portraits: J. A. Comenius (3), E. Benes (4), M. R. Stefanik and T. G. Masaryk
9-17: Landscapes (1936)
18,19: Personal Delivery Stamps (1937)
20: 1937 E. Benes
21: 1937 Newspaper Stamp
22: Church of St. Barbara in Kutna Hora (1937)
23: M. R. Stefanik (1938)
24: Masaryk (1939)
25: 1939 Airmail Stamp
1922 Airmail Set:
building of the castle began in the late 9th century when the royal Premyslid
family took power over the united Czech territories. Saint George Basilica,
Saint Vitus Cathedral, and a convent were erected within the fortress walls.
The Premyslid family died out in the 14th century, and the castle fell into disrepair. Under the leadership of Charles IV, the castle was transformed into a prestigious gothic palace.
The royal complex was again remodeled under reign of V. Jagellonsky. His throne room is praised for its expansive vaults with intricate network of intertwined ribs. The Archbishop's Palace was rebuilt from its Renaissance foundations.
In the late 1500s, during the reign of Rudolf II, Italian architects built a new palace with two big halls. The "New World," a district with modest homes along winding alleyways, was also constructed within the Hradcany compound.
The Castle became the seat of the president of the Republic in 1918, but large sections were closed to the public during the years of communist domination. The Castle currently houses the offices of Czech government.
(2) The Hussites comprised an early Protestant Christian movement, followers of Jan Hus. This predominantly religious movement was also propelled by social issues and coincided to some extent with the first stages of the Czech national self-awareness.
(3) John Amos Comenius (Czech: Jan Amos Komenský) (1592 -1670) was a Czech teacher, scientist, educator, and writer. He was a Protestant bishop and one of the earliest champions of universal education, a concept eventually set forth in his book Didactica Magna. During the 19th century Czech National Revival, Comenius became idealised as a symbol of the Czech nation. This image persists to the present day.
Edvard Benes (1884-1948) was a leader of the Czechoslovak
independence movement and the second President of Czechoslovakia.
He was born on May 28, 1884, in Bohemia. In 1912 he taught at the Charles University of Prague. During World War I he was one of the leading organizers of an independent Czechoslovakia abroad. From 1916-1918 Benes was a Secretary of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris and Minister of the Interior and of Foreign Affaires within the Provisional Czechoslovak government.
Benes became first Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia, and from 1923-1927 he was also a member of the League of Nations Council. He was a member of the Czechoslovak National Socialist Party and a strong Czechoslovakist - he did not consider Slovaks and Czechs to be separate ethnicities.
In 1935 Benes succeeded Masaryk to become President of Czechoslovakia. In October 1938, after the Munich Agreement ceded the Sudetenland to Germany, but before the German occupation of the Czech speaking Bohemia and Moravia, he resigned from office and went into exile in London. Then in 1940 he organized the Provisional Government in Exile led by J. Sramek, and Benes himself became the President of Czechoslovakia in exile. Although oriented to the West, in 1943 he signed the entente between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union in order to secure Czechoslovakia's political position, as well as his own.
At the end of World War II, he returned home as the President of Czechoslovakia. He resented the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia on 25 February 1948 led by Prime Minister Klement Gottwald, and resigned as President on 7 June 1948. Gottwald succeeded him as President. Benes died on September 3, 1948.
The so-called Benes decrees, which, among other things, expropriated the property of ethnic German and Hungarian Czechoslovakians, paved the way for the eventual expulsion of ethnic Germans to Germany and Austria.