The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat
Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorat Cechy a Morava) was a German
protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15,
1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former
Austrian provinces Bohemia and Moravia, and ceased in May 1945 when Germany
capitulated and World War II ended.
The protectorate has its own prime ministers, all coming from the Národního Sourucenství (National Union, NS), the sole legal party. Prime ministers were Alois Eliás (1939-1941), Jaroslav Krejcí (1941-1945) and Richard Bienert (1945).
1: 1939 overprints on Czechoslovakian stamps
2-11: 1939 Definitives: Lime Branch (with fruits) and Views
12-14: 1940 Definitive Stamps: Views
15: 1939 Newspaper Stamp
16: Commercial Printed Matter (1939)
17: 1939 Personal Delivery Stamp
18: Red Cross Fund (1940)
19-23: 1940 Definitives: Views
1: A. Hitler 53rd Birthday (1942)
2-7: 1942 Definitives: A. Hitler
8: Red Cross Fund (1942)
9: Stamp Day (1943)
10-12: Winter Relief Fund (1943)
13: 1943 Newspaper Stamp
1: Hitler 54th Birthday (1943)
2-4: R. Wagner (3) 130th Birth Anniversary (1943)
5: Assassination of R. Heydrich (4), Governor of the Protectorate (1943)
6: Red Cross Fund (1943)
7,8: 5th Anniversary of Protectorate (1944)
9: Hitler 55th Birthday (1944)
10: F. Smetana (composer) 60th Death Anniversary (1944)
11: 1944 St. Vitus Cathedral (5)
12: 1945 Definitive stamp: A. Hitler
1: 1941 Official Stamp
2: 1943 Official Stamp
3: 1939 Postage Due Stamp
A. Mozart (1756-1791) was one of the most significant and influential composers
of Western classical music. Mozart was born in Salzburg, now in Austria but
at the time the capital of a small independent Archbishopric within the Holy
Mozart's musical ability started to become apparent when he was a toddler. He was the son of Leopold Mozart, one of Europe's leading musical pedagogues. Mozart received intensive musical training from his father, including instruction in playing both the piano and the violin. He developed very rapidly and began to compose his own works at the age of five. Leopold soon realized that he could make a substantial income by showcasing his son as a Wunderkind in the courts of Europe. During his trips, Mozart met a great number of musicians, and knew the works of other great composers. Mozart spent his final years in Vienna where he died in 1791.
Mozart was prolific and wrote in many genres. Perhaps his best admired work is in opera, the piano concerto, the symphony, and in the string quartet and string quintet. Mozart also wrote much work for solo piano, other forms of chamber music, masses and other religious music, and endless dances, divertimenti, and other forms of light entertainment.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was established on
March 15, 1939 by proclamation of Adolf Hitler from Prague Castle following
the declaration of establishment of an independent national Slovak state.
It was placed under the supervision of the German Reichsprotektor. Czechoslovak
President Emil Hácha remained as technical head of state with the title
of State President. German officials manned departments analogous to cabinet
ministries, while small German control offices were established locally. The
Gestapo assumed police authority. Jews were dismissed from the civil service
and political parties were banned. The population of the protectorate was
mobilized for labor that would aid the German war effort, and special offices
were organized to supervise the management of industries important to that
effort. Czechs were drafted to work in coal mines, the iron and steel industry,
and armaments production; some young people were sent to Germany. Consumer
goods production, much diminished, was largely directed toward supplying the
German armed forces. The protectorate's population was subjected to strict
German rule was moderate during the first months of the occupation. During World War II, in 1941, the Reich adopted a more radical policy in the protectorate. The Czech government was reorganized, and all Czech cultural organizations were closed. The Gestapo indulged in arrests and executions and the deportation of Jews to concentration camps was organized (the Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia was virtually annihilated). In 1943 the German war effort was accelerated. Some 350,000 Czech laborers were dispatched to the Reich and within the protectorate, all non-war-related industry was prohibited.
(3) Wilhelm Richard Wagner (1813–1883) was an influential German composer, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas. His music is still widely performed, the best known pieces being the Ride of the Valkyries and the Bridal Chorus. Also famous are opera Tristan and Isolde, often considered his masterpiece and the Ring cycle, a set of four operas based on German and Scandinavian mythology.
(4) Reinhard T. E. Heydrich (1904-1942) was an Obergruppenführer in the Nazi German paramilitary corps - the SS led by Heinrich Himmler.
He was born in Halle, Germany. His father was virulently anti-semitic. Heydrich had early fascinations with the extreme right and racialist ideology, participating in the freikorps when he was young. In 1922 he joined the navy, however he was later dismissed.
1931 was to be a turning point for Heydrich. Himmler wished to set up a counter-intelligence division of the SS. Acting on a friend's advice, he interviewed Heydrich, and after a twenty minute test, Himmler hired him on the spot. In doing so Himmler also effectively recruited Heydrich into the Nazi Party, where he soon built up a fearsome reputation within the party.
Upon the establishment of the Third Reich, Heydrich helped Adolf Hitler 'dig up dirt' on many political opponents, keeping an impressive filing system listing individuals and organizations opposing the party and the regime. Heydrich was also instrumental in establishing the false attack by Poland on German national radio.
Heydrich became one of the main architects of the Holocaust during the first years of World War II and chaired the Wannsee conference at which plans for the deportation of the Jews to extermination camps were discussed.
In September 1941 he was appointed Protector of Bohemia and Moravia. During role as de facto dictator of Bohemia and Moravia, Heydrich often drove around alone in a car with an open roof - a show of confidence in the occupational forces and their repressive measures in subduing the population. On May 27, 1942 he was assassinated by a team of British-trained agents of the Czechoslovak government in exile in London. The retaliation from the Nazis was savage. On June 10 all males over the age of 16 in the village of Lidice, 22 km north-west of Prague, were murdered a day after the town was burned.
(5) St. Vitus's Cathedral is the largest and the most important church in Prague. Apart from divine services, the coronations of Czech kings and queens also took place in it. The remains of provincial patron saints, sovereigns, noblemen and archbishops are interred here. About the year 925 prince Wenceslas I founded a Romanesque rotunda on the same site and in 1344 Charles IV began the construction of a Gothic cathedral.