A Bulgarian district in the southeast Balkan Peninsula. After Turkey's defeat by Russia in 1877-78, at Berlin Peace Conference Eastern Rumelia was given autonomy. It was administrated by a Christian governor appointed by the Sultan. The Bulgarians in Rumelia revolted against Turkish rule and in 1885, a coup overthrew the vestiges of Turkish control and South Bulgaria was established. The territory was annexed by Bulgaria in September same year.

Eastern Rumelia was issuing stamps from 1880 till annexation. The first issue consisted of several kinds of overprints on stamps of Turkey. Stamps of the contemporaneous Turkish design appeared in 1881, differing from Turkish stamps by having the inscription "Eastern Rumelia" written in four languages (French, Greek, Bulgarian and Turkish):


On 10 September 1885, the existing Rumelian issues were overprinted with two different images of the Bulgarian lion, and then with the lion in a frame and "Bulgarian Post" in Cyrillic. From 1886 on, the province used Bulgarian stamps.